CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 is to be studied along with the historical approach of previous CENSUS OF INDIA. Basically, the study of population is called Demography.

Population trend in India can be classified into 4 major periods:

  1. 1891-1921 : Period of stagnant population.
  2. 1921-1951 : Period of steady growth.
  3. 1951-1981 : Period of high growth.
  4. 1981-2011 : Period of declining rate.

NOTE : The year, 1921 is known as the year of Great Divide.

2011 CENSUS OF INDIA IMAGE

NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY : CENSUS OF INDIA 2011

This policy outlined following objectives to be achieved:

  • To lower down the Total Fertility Rate to achieve replacement level by 2010.
  • Population stabilization by 2045.
  • Reduce Maternal Mortality Rate to below 100 per 100000 births.
  • Reduce Infant Mortality Rate to below 30 per thousand live births.
  • Making school education compulsory.
  • Promote delayed marriage of girls.
  • Promote and control communicable diseases.

Demographics

  • First synchronized census in India took place in 1881. Since 1901, it has been taking place after every decade. 
  • Census 2011 is the 15th Census, and 7th after Independence.
  • The slogan of census 2011 is “Our Census, Our Future”.
  • According to the Census 2011, there are 50 million plus cities in India as compared to 35 on census 2001.
  • Cafeteria approach to family planning was adopted during Janta Party Govt. Rule in 1978.

CENSUS OF INDIA 2011: POPULATION

(All figures based on Census 2011)

  • Total Population : 1,21,08,54,977
  • Male : 62,32,70,258
  • Females : 58,75,84, 719
  • Density : 382 per sq km
  • Adult Sex Ratio : 943
  • Child Sex Ratio : 919

Largest and the Smallest States/UTs (in population)

  • Top States : Uttar Pradesh > Maharashtra > Bihar > West Bengal > Andhra Pradesh
  • Bottom States : Sikkim > Daman and Diu > Dadra and Nagar Haveli > Andaman and Nicobar Islands > Sikkim

Effective Literacy Rate (2001-2011)

  • Persons : 64.83 % (2001) and 73 % (2011) 
  • Male : 75.26 % (2001) and 80.9% (2011)
  • Female : 53.67 % (2001) and 64.6 % (2011)

Ranks of District in 2011

  • As per Population 
    • Top Districts : Thane (Maharashtra) and North Twenty Four Paraganas ( Pashchim Banga)
    • Bottom Districts : Dibang Valley (Arunachal Pradesh) and Anjaw (Arunachal Pradesh)
  • As per Sex Ratio
    • Top Districts : Mahe, Puducherry (1176) and Almora, Uttarakhand (1142)
    • Bottom Districts : Daman, Daman & Diu (533) and Leh, Ladakh in J&K (583)
  • Sex Ratio
    • 2001 
      • Male : 532.2 mn (51.74 %)
      • Female : 496.5 mn (48.26%)
      • Adult Sex Ratio : 933
      • Child Sex Ratio : 927
    • 2011 
      • Male : 623.1 (51.51%)
      • Female : 587.4 ( 48.46%)
      • Adult Sex Ratio : 943
      • Child Sex Ratio : 919

Ranks of States/UTs (2011)

  • Literacy Rate 
    • Top 2 States : Kerela (94%) and Lakshadweep ( 91.8%)
    • Bottom 2 States : Bihar (61.8%) and Arunachal Pradesh (65.4%)
  • Population Density
    • Top 2 States : NCT of Delhi (11,320) and Chandigarh (9,258)
    • Bottom 2 States : Arunachal Pradesh (17) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (46)
  • Sex Ratio
    • Top 2 States : Kerela (1084) and Puducherry (1037)
    • Bottom 2 States : Daman & Diu (618) and Dadra and Nagar Haveli (774)

KEY POINT OF CENSUS OF INDIA 2011

  • Total Population of India : 1,21,08,54,977
  • Sex Ratio (females per 1000 males) : 943
  • Density : 382 persons per sq. km
  • Crude Birth Rate (2009) : 22.5
  • Crude Death Rate (2009) : 7.3
  • Infant Mortality Rate (2006) : 57 per 1000 live births
  • Maternal Mortality Rate : 407 per lakh live births
  • Literacy Rate of the country : 73% (Male – 80.9% and Female – 64.6%)
  • Highest literacy – Kerela (94%)
  • Lowest literacy – Bihar ( 61.8%)
  • Highest female literacy – Kerela (92.1 %)
  • Lowest female literacy – Bihar (51.5%)
  • Highest decadal growth – Meghalaya (27.9%)
  • Highest Population – Uttar Pradesh (19,98,12,341)
  • Lowest Population – Sikkim ( 6,10,577)
  • Highest Population Density – Bihar (1106)
  • Lowest Population Density – Arunachal Pradesh (17)
  • Highest Sex Ratio – Kerela (1084)
  • State having lowest Sex Ratio – Haryana (879)
  • India accounts for a meagre 2.4 % of the world surface area of 135.79 million sq km.
  • India supports 17.5 % of the World Population.
  • Life Expectancy at Birth – 63.5 years, Male – 62.6 years and Female – 64.2 years.
  • First census was undertaken in 1872 State with but a systematic programme of Population Census started in 1881.
  • Highest Death Rate among states is in Odisha – 98 per 1000.
  • Lowest  Death Rate among states is in Kerela – 16 per 1000.
  • Decadal growth rate in Population – 17.7%
  • State having lowest population decadal growth rate – Nagaland (-0.6%)
  • Four cities having highest population in India are Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and Chennai respectively.
  • Andhra Pradesh was the first state to prepare a population policy.
  • Highest SCpopulation is in UP.
  • Lowest SC population is in Nagaland.
  • Highest ST population is in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Lowest ST population is in Punjab.

RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES AS PER CENSUS OF INDIA 2011

  • HINDU 
    • Population – 96.63 crore (2011)
    • Percentage Growth – 79.8%
    • Decadal Growth – 16.8%
  • MUSLIM
    • Population – 17.22 crore (2011)
    • Percentage Growth – 14.2%
    • Decadal Growth – 24.6%
  • CHRISTIAN
    • Population – 2.78 crore (2011)
    • Percentage Growth – 2.3%
    • Decadal Growth – 15.5%
  • SIKH
    • Population – 2.08 crore (2011)
    • Percentage Growth – 1.7%
    • Decadal Growth – 8.4%
  • BUDDHIST
    • Population – 0.84 crore (2011)
    • Percentage Growth – 0.7%
    • Decadal Growth – 6.1%
  • JAIN
    • Population – 0.45 crore (2011)
    • Percentage Growth – 0.4%
    • Decadal Growth – 5.4%

STATES-WISE RANKING: CENSUS OF INDIA 2011

  • LARGEST INDIAN STATE : AREA-WISE
    • Rajasthan > MP > Maharashtra > UP > J&K > Gujarat > Karnataka > Andhra Pradesh > Odisha > Chattisgarh > Tamil Nadu > Telangana > Bihar > West Bengal > Arunachal Pradesh > Jharkhand > Assam > Himachal Pradesh > Uttarakhand > Punjab > Haryana > Kerela > Meghalya > Manipur > Mizoram > Nagaland > Tripura > Sikkim > Goa.
  • LARGEST UNION TERRITORIES : AREA-WISE
    • Andaman & Nicobar Islands > Delhi > Dadra & Nagar Haveli > Puducherry > Chandigarh > Daman & Diu > Lakhshadweep
  • LARGEST INDIA STATE : POPULATION-WISE
    • UP > Maharashtra > Bihar > West Bengal > MP > TN > Rajasthan > Karnataka > Gujarat > Andhra Pradesh > Odisha > Telangana > Kerela > Jharkhand > Assam > Punjab > Chhattisgarh >  Haryana > J&K > Uttarakhand > HP > Tripura > Manipur > Meghalaya > Nagaland > Goa > Arunachal Pradesh > Mizoram > Sikkim.
  • LARGEST UNION TERRITORIES : POPULATION-WISE 
    • Delhi > Puducherry > Chandigarh > Andaman & Nicobar Islands > Dadra and Nagar Haveli > Daman & Diu >  Lakshadweep