Telangana Statehood Day

TELANGANA STATEHOOD DAY

In February 2014,Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.

TELANGANA STATEHOOD DAY

Top Current Affairs 3rd June 2020

Source | Press Information Bureau


GS Paper I: Post-Independence reorganization of States in India



Telangana Statehood Day

Key Takeaways

  • In February 2014,Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.
  • Hyderabad was to remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period, not more than ten years after that period Hyderabad shall be the capital of the state of Telangana and there shall be a new capital for the state of Andhra Pradesh.

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Context: The Statehood Day of Telangana was celebrated recently on 2nd June 2020. Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi, greeted the people of Telangana on their Statehood Day.

What you need to know about Telangana and its Statehood Day?

Telangana is an Indian Peninsular State situated on the south-central stretch of Indian Peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India.

BORDERING STATES: Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east, Karnataka to the west, and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south.

Four State Icons of Telangana are:

  1. State Bird – Palapitta (Indian Roller or Blue Jay).
  2. State Animal – Jinka (Deer).
  3. State Tree – Jammi Chettu (Prosopis Cineraria).
  4. State Flower – Tangedu (Tanner’s Cassia).

These icons reflect the culture and tradition of Telangana state and three of them – Tangedu flowers, Palapitta and Jammi Chettu are associated with the popular festivals of Bathukamma and Dasara, while Jinka reflects the mindset of the people of Telangana as it is very sensitive and innocent.


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NATIONAL PARKS, WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES & SACRED GROVES

Telangana has three National Parks:

  1. Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district.
  2. Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park in Ranga Reddy district.
  3. Mrugavani National Park also in Ranga Reddy district.

Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include:

  • Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal District;
  • Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary in Adilabad district;
  • Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary in Khammam district;
  • Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak district;
  • Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts;
  • Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak and Nizamabad districts;
  • Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar district.

There are 65 sacred groves Telangana

  • 2 in Adilabad district;
  • 13 in Hyderabad district;
  • 4 in Karimnagar district;
  • 4 in Khammam district;
  • 9 in Mahbubnagar district;
  • 4 in Medak district;
  • 9 in Nalgonda district;
  • 10 in Ranga Reddy district;
  • 3 in Warangal district.

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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

EARLY HISTORY

The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE) became the dominant power in this region.

  • After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.

THE KAKATIYA DYNASTY

The reign of the Kakatiya dynasty, which ruled most parts of the present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana from 1083 to 1323 CE was the golden age for the Telangana area.

  • Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty.
  • The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.

THE AGE OF MEDIEVAL INDIA

The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate.

  • Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golconda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518.
  • In 1687, the Golconda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golconda fort.
  • In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning “Administrator of the Realm”).

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THE POST-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD

When India got independence from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent.

  • The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo.
  • OPERATION POLO: Operation Polo was the code name of the Hyderabad “police action” in September 1948, by the then newly independent Dominion of India against the Hyderabad State. It was a military operation in which the Indian Armed Forces invaded the Nizam-ruled princely state, annexing it into the Indian Union.
  • It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950.
  • The official language of the state was switched from Urdu to English.

TELAGNANA REBELLION: The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana regions of the Hyderabad State between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist Party of India (CPI).

  • The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes.
  • It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts.
  • Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the Nizam Osman Ali Khan.
  • The violent phase of the movement ended after the government of India’s Operation Polo.

APPOINTMENT OF STATE REORGANIZATION COMMISSION (SRC): In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis.

  • An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana’s interests.
  • After the reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh. This was called the Gentlemen’s Agreement.
  • Following this Gentlemen’s agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.

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TELANGANA MOVEMENT AND FORMATION OF TELANGANA AS A STATE IN 2014: There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972 and 2009.

  • On 9 December 2009 the government of India announced the process of formation of the Telangana state.
  • Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.
  • On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state.
  • In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.
  • The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014.
    • Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Telangana Rashtra Samithi party secured majority.
    • Hyderabad was to remain as the joint capital of both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for a period, not more than ten years after that period Hyderabad shall be the capital of the state of Telangana and there shall be a new capital for the state of Andhra Pradesh.
    • Andhra Pradesh picked Amaravati as its capital and moved its secretariat in 2016 and legislature in March 2017 to its new capital.

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