Important Amendments to Indian Constitution | Part-2
This Article is Second in the series of Important Amendments to the Indian Constitution. The Amendment to the Indian Constitution plays a crucial role for Prelims as well as Mains in UPSC Civil Services examination.
In the series of Important amendments to Indian Consitution, we are going to cover all the important amendments that are crucial from UPSC Exam point of view.
Amendments to the Indian Constitution
The procedure for the Amendment of the Indian Constitution is dealt in detail in the Article 368 in Part XX of the Indian Constitution. Following points should be kept in mind while talking about amendments to the Indian Consitution.
- An amendment of the constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a bill for the purpose in either House of Parliament and not in the state legislature.
- The bill can be introduced either by a minister or by a private member and does not require prior permission of the President of India.
- The Bill must be passed by Houses with special majority that is two-third (2/3rd) of the members of the House present and voting.
- In case of deadlock between the two houses over the bill, there is no provision of joint sitting in this regard.
- The President must give his assent to the bill. He can neither withold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.
LIST OF IMPORTANT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION PART-2
|11.||The Constitution (Eleventh Amendment) Act, 1961||The main purpose of the amendment was to amend Article 66 and 71 of the Constitution to provide that the election of President or Vice President could not be challenged on the ground of vacancy in the appropriate electoral college.|
|12.||The Constitution (Twelfth Amendment) Act, 1962||This amendment sought to include Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory and to amend Article 240 for the purpose.|
|13.||The Constitution (Thirteenth Amendment) Act, 1962||By this amendment, a new Article 371A was added to make special provisions with respect to state of Nagaland in pursuance of an agreement between Government of India and Naga People’s Convention.|
|14.||The Constitution (Fourteenth Amendment) Act, 1962||By this Act, Pondicherry was included in the Fifth Schedule as a Union Territory, and this Act has also enabled the creation of Legislature by Parliamentary law for Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Goa, Daman and Diu and Pondicherry.|
|15.||The Constitution (Fiftteenth Amendment) Act, 1963||This amendment raised the age of retirement of the High Court Judge from 60 to 62 years, extended the jurisdiction of a High Court to issue writs under Article 226 to a Government or authority situated outside its territorial jurisdiction where the cause of action arises within such jurisdiction, modifying the procedure imposed by Art. 311 upon the pleasure of the President.|
|16.||The Constitution (Sixteenth Amendment) Act, 1963||This effect changes in Art 19 to enable the Parliament to make laws providing reasonable restriction on the freedom of expression in the larger interests of the sovereignity and integrity of India.|
It also brought amendment in the form of oath contained in the Third Schedule and emphasised on upholding the sovereignity and integrity of India.
|17.||The Constitution (Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964||(i) Article 31A was further amended to prohibit the acquisition of land under personal cultivation unless the market value of the land is paid as compensation and the definition of “estate”as contained in that Article had also been enlarged with retrospective effect.|
(ii) The Ninth Schedule had also been amended to include 44 more Articles.
|18.||The Constitution (Eighteenth Amendment) Act, 1966||Article 3 was amended by this Act to specify that the expression “State” will include a UT also and to make it clear that the power to form a new state under this Article includes a power to form a new State or UT by uniting a part of a State or a UT to another State or UT.|
|19.||The Constitution (Ninteenth Amendment) Act, 1966||Article 324 was amended to effect a consequential change as a result of the decision to abolish Election Tribunals and to hear election petitions by High Courts.|
|20.||The Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966||This amendment was necessitated by the decision of the Supreme Court in Chandramohan vs. State of UP in which certain appointments of District Judges in State of UP were declared void by SC. |
A new Article 233A was added and the appointments made by Governor were validated.
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