Important Amendments to Indian Constitution | Part-1
This Article is the First in the series of Important Amendments to the Indian Constitution. The Amendment to the Indian Constitution plays a crucial role for Prelims as well as Mains in UPSC Civil Services examination.
In the series of Important amendments to Indian Consitution, we are going to cover all the important amendments that are crucial from UPSC Exam point of view.
Amendments to the Indian Constitution
The procedure for the Amendment of the Indian Constitution is dealt in detail in the Article 368 in Part XX of the Indian Constitution. Following points should be kept in mind while talking about amendments to the Indian Consitution.
- An amendment of the constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a bill for the purpose in either House of Parliament and not in the state legislature.
- The bill can be introduced either by a minister or by a private member and does not require prior permission of the President of India.
- The Bill must be passed by Houses with special majority that is two-third (2/3rd) of the members of the House present and voting.
- In case of deadlock between the two houses over the bill, there is no provision of joint sitting in this regard.
- The President must give his assent to the bill. He can neither withold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.
LIST OF IMPORTANT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
|1.||The Constitution First Amendment Act, 1950||(i) It provides for several new grouds of restrictions to the right to freedom of speech and expression and the right to practice any profession or to carry on any trade or business as contained in Article 19 of the Indian Constitution.|
(ii) These restrictions related to public order, friendly relations with Foreign States or incitement to an offence in relation to the right to freedom of speech, and to the prescribing of professional or technical qualification or the carryijg on by the State, etc. of any trade, business, industry or service in relation to the right to carry on any trade or business.
(iii) The Amendment also inserted two new Articles, i.e., Article 31A and 31B and the Ninth Schedule to give protection from challenge to land reform laws.
|2.||The Constitution (Second Amendment) Act, 1952||With the help of this amendment to the Indian Constitution, the scale or representation for election to the Lok Sabha was readjusted.|
|3.||The Constitution (Third Amendment) Act, 1954||This amendment substituted entry 33 of the List III (Concurrent List) [Trade and commerce within the State] of the 7th Schedule to make it correspond to Article 369 (Trade and commerce within a State).|
|4.||The Constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1955||(i) Article 31(2) of the Constitution was amended to re-state more precisely the State’s power of compulsory acquisition and requisitioning of private property and distinguish it from cases where the operation of regulatory or prohibitory lawas of the State results in “Deprivation of Poverty”.|
(ii) Apart from this, Article 31A of the Constitution was also amended to extend its scope to cover categories of essential welfare legislation like abolition of zamindaris, proper planning of urban and rural areas and for effecting a full control over the country, etc.
(iii) Six Acts were also included in the Ninth Schedule.
(iv) Article 305 was also amended to save certain laws providing State Monopolies.
|5.||The Constitution (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1955||This Amendment made a change in Article 3 so as to empower President to specify a time for state legislatures to convey their views on the proposed Central laws affecting areas, boundaries, etc. of their states.|
|6.||The Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956||(i) Some changes were made in Article 269 and 286 with the help of this amendment. These Articles were related to taxes on sale and purchase of inter-state trade and commerce. |
(ii) A new entry 92A was added to the Union List of the 7th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
|7.||The Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956||(i) This amendment made possible the implementation of State Reorganization Act. Therefore, the then existing categorization of State into Part A, Part B and Part C was henceforth ceased.|
(ii) Part C states were redesignated as Union Territories.
(iii) The Seats in the Rajya Sabha and in the Union and State Legislature were reallocated.
(iv) It also effected changes with regard to the appointment of additional and acting judges, High courts and their jurisdiction etc.
|8.||The Constitution (Eight Amendment) Act, 1960||Article 344 amended to extend the period of reservation of SC/STs in Parliament for a period of 10 years.|
|9.||The Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1955||This Amendment was introduced to give effect to the transfer of Berubari Union territories to Pakistan.|
|10.||The Constitution (Tenth Amendment) Act, 1955||Amendment to Article 240 of the Indian Constitution as well as the First Schedule of Indian Constitution in order to include areas of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as a Union Territory and to provide for its administration under the regulation making powers of the President.|
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