Important Amendments to Indian Constitution | Part-8
This Article is Eighth in the series of Important Amendments to the Indian Constitution. The Amendment to the Indian Constitution plays a crucial role for Prelims as well as Mains in UPSC Civil Services examination.
In the series of Important amendments to Indian Consitution, we are going to cover all the important amendments that are crucial from UPSC Exam point of view.
Amendments to the Indian Constitution
The procedure for the Amendment of the Indian Constitution is dealt in detail in the Article 368 in Part XX of the Indian Constitution. Following points should be kept in mind while talking about amendments to the Indian Consitution.
- An amendment of the constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a bill for the purpose in either House of Parliament and not in the state legislature.
- The bill can be introduced either by a minister or by a private member and does not require prior permission of the President of India.
- The Bill must be passed by Houses with special majority that is two-third (2/3rd) of the members of the House present and voting.
- In case of deadlock between the two houses over the bill, there is no provision of joint sitting in this regard.
- The President must give his assent to the bill. He can neither withold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.
LIST OF IMPORTANT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION
|71.||The Constitution (Seventy First Amendment) Act, 1992||Amened Schedule 8 to Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as official languages, thus, increasing the total languages included in it to 18.|
|72.||The Constitution (Seventy Second Amendment) Act, 1992||It provided for reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly hence implementing the Memorandum signed with the Tripura National Volunteers in 1988.|
|73.||The Constitution (Seventy Third Amendment) Act, 1993||With this the institution of Panchayati Raj received constitutional guarantee, status and legitimacy in the direction of power to the people at grass-root level.|
A separate Schedule XI was added to deal with it. It also inserted Part IX, containing Arts 243, 243A to 243O.
|74.||The Constitution (Seventy Fourth Amendment) Act, 1993||This provided for constituional sanctity to Nagarpalika or Municipalities by inserting Part-IXA, containing Article 243P-243ZG and a separate Schedule XII which deals with items concerning Municipalities.|
|75.||The Constitution (Seventy Fifth Amendment) Act, 1994||It amended Article 323B to provide provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals and to exclude the jurisdiction of all courts except that of SC.|
|76.||The Constitution (Seventy Sixth Amendment) Act, 1994||This amendment enabled continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution. It provided for the inclusion of Tamil Nadu Reservation List in the 9th Schedule to make it immune to judicial review.|
|77.||The Constitution (Seventy Seventh Amendment) Act, 1995||This was a technical amendment to protect reservation to SCs and STs Employees in promotions.|
|78.||The Constitution (Forty Eighth Amendment) Act, 1995||This amendment placed land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|79.||The Constitution (Forty Ninth Amendment) Act, 1999||This amendment extended reservation for SCs and STs and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010.|
|80.||The Constitution (Eightieth Amendment) Act, 1999||This Amendment implemented the recommendations of Tenth Finance Commission to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre. |
Under the new scheme of devolution of revenue between Union and States, 26% out of gross proceeds of Union Taxes and duties is to be assigned to the states in lieu of their existing shares in the income-tax, excise duties, special excise duties and grants in lieu of tax on railway passenger fares.
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