Important Amendments to Indian Constitution | Part-4
This Article is Fourth in the series of Important Amendments to the Indian Constitution. The Amendment to the Indian Constitution plays a crucial role for Prelims as well as Mains in UPSC Civil Services examination.
In the series of Important amendments to Indian Consitution, we are going to cover all the important amendments that are crucial from UPSC Exam point of view.
Amendments to the Indian Constitution
The procedure for the Amendment of the Indian Constitution is dealt in detail in the Article 368 in Part XX of the Indian Constitution. Following points should be kept in mind while talking about amendments to the Indian Consitution.
- An amendment of the constitution can be initiated only by the introduction of a bill for the purpose in either House of Parliament and not in the state legislature.
- The bill can be introduced either by a minister or by a private member and does not require prior permission of the President of India.
- The Bill must be passed by Houses with special majority that is two-third (2/3rd) of the members of the House present and voting.
- In case of deadlock between the two houses over the bill, there is no provision of joint sitting in this regard.
- The President must give his assent to the bill. He can neither withold his assent to the bill nor return the bill for reconsideration of the Parliament.
LIST OF IMPORTANT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION PART-4
|31.||The Constitution (Thirty First Amendment) Act, 1972||By this Amendment, there was an increase in size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise.|
But it reduced the representation of UTs from 25 to 20.
|32.||The Constitution (Thirty Second Amendment) Act, 1973||(i) This provided for giving effect to the provision of equal opportunities to different areas of State of Andhra Pradesh and for the Constitution of Administrative Tribunal with jurisdiction to deal with grievances relating to public services. |
(ii) This amendment provided for protection of regional rights in Telangana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh.
(iii) It also empowered Parliament to legislate for the establishment of a Central University in the State.
|33.||The Constitution (Thirty Third Amendment) Act, 1974||Articles 101 and 190 were amended to streamline the procedure for resignation of Members of Parliament and State Legislature.|
|34.||The Constitution (Thirty Fourth Amendment) Act, 1974||This amendment was made to the Ninth Schedule of Indian Constitution to place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|35.||The Constitution (Thirty Fifth Amendment) Act, 1974||(i) Article 2A was added thereby conferring on Sikkim the status of an associate State of Indian Union. |
(ii) Consequent Amendments were made to Article 80 and 81.
(iii) Tenth Schedule was added which laid down Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India.
|36.||The Constitution (Thirty Sixth Amendment) Act, 1975||This was enacted to make Sikkim a full-fledged State of Indian Union and to include it in the First Schedule to the Constitution and to allot to Sikkim one seat each in Council of States and in the House of the People.|
Article 2A and the Tenth Schedule inserted by the 35th Amendment to the Constitution were omitted and Article 80 and 81 were amended suitably.
|37.||The Constitution (Thirty Seventh Amendment) Act, 1975||Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh was provided with a Legislative Assembly, Article 240 of the Consititution was also amended to provide that as in the case of other UTs with Legislatures, the power of President to make regulations for the UTs of Arunachal Pradesh may be exercised only when the assembly is either dissolved or its fuctions remain suspended.|
|38.||The Constitution (Thirty Eighth Amendment) Act, 1975||This Act amended Article 123, 213 and 352 of the Constitution to provide that the satisfaction of President or Governor contained in these Articles would be callled in question in any court of law.|
|39.||The Constitution (Thirty Ninth Amendment) Act, 1975||By this Act, disputes related to election of President, Vice-President, Prime Minister and Speaker are to be determined by such authority as may be determined by Parliamentary Law. Certain Central enactments were also included in the 9th Schedule by this Act.|
|40.||The Constitution (Fourtieth Amendment) Act, 1956||This Act provided for vesting in the Union of all mines, minerals and other things of value lying in the ocean within the territorial waters or the continental shelf or the exclusive economic zone of India.|
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