WORLD MIGRATORY BIRD DAY 2020
GS Paper III: Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management.
Context: This year the World Migratory Bird Day highlighted the importance of conserving the ecological connectivity that support the natural movements of migratoy birds.
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What is this World Migratory Bird Day?
World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) is an annual awareness-raising campaign highlighting the need for the conservation of migratory birds and their habitats. It has a global outreach and is an effective tool to help raise global awareness of the threats faced by migratory birds, their ecological importance, and the need for international cooperation to conserve them.
- THEME 2020: “Birds Connect Our World”
- THEME 2019: “Protect Birds: Be the Solution to Plastic Pollution!”
- The annual day was initiated in 2006.
- Since 2018, it is celebrated twice a year, on the second Saturday in May and in October.
- The campaign is organized by two international wildlife treaties administered by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
- Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)
- African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) – together with Environment for the Americas (EFTA).
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Prelims Background Bites
Concept of Bird migration
- Bird migration is the regular seasonal movement, often north and south along a flyway, between breeding and wintering grounds.
- Migration carries high costs in predation and mortality, including from hunting by humans, and is driven primarily by availability of food.
- It occurs mainly in the northern hemisphere, where birds are funneled on to specific routes by natural barriers such as the Mediterranean Sea or the Caribbean Sea.
- The Arctic tern holds the long-distance migration record for birds, travelling between Arctic breeding grounds and the Antarctic each year.
About Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)
Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) is an environmental treaty under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme that provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.
- It is also known as the Bonn Convention and is notably the only convention that deals with taking or harvesting of species from the wild. It currently protects 173 migratory species from across the globe.
- Enforcement Year: The Convention came into force on November 1, 1983. The Secretariat that administers the Convention was established in 1984.
- Parties: As of 1st November 2019, there were 130 Parties to the Convention– 129 countries plus the European Union.
- Maldives is the latest country to join it (November 2019).
- Species Covered: Convention has two Appendices:
- Appendix I lists migratory species that are endangered or threatened with extinction.
- Appendix II lists migratory species which have an unfavourable conservation status and which require international agreements for their conservation and management.
- Migratory Species: A migratory species is one that cyclically and predictably crosses one or more national jurisdictional boundaries due to factors like food, temperature, shelter, etc.
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