INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES


International Advanced Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), an autonomous R&D Centre of Department of Science and Technology (DST), has developed ultrafast laser surface texturing technology, which can improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines.


INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE





TABLE OF CONTENTS

    WHAT ARE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES (ICE)?



    An Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. 


    In an internal combustion engine, the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistonsturbine bladesrotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful work. 


    The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto.



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    HOW IS IT DIFFERENT FROM AN EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE?


    In an External Combustion Engine, such as steam or Stirling engines, energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with, or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be airhot waterpressurized water or even liquid sodium, heated in a boiler. Whereas, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuelliquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many stationary applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft, and boats.


    NOTE: Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasolinediesel fuel or fuel oil. There is a growing usage of renewable fuels like bio-diesel for CI (compression ignition) engines and bio-ethanol or methanol for SI (spark ignition) enginesHydrogen is sometimes used, and can be obtained from either fossil fuels or renewable energy.

    HOW THIS RECENTLY DEVELOPED TECHNOLOGY CAN INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF “ICE”?

    Laser surface micro-texturing, which offers precise control of the sizeshape and density of micro-surface texture features has gained momentum as a way to control friction and wear


    In this technology, a pulsating laser beam creates micro-dimples or grooves on the surface of materials in a very controlled manner. Such textures can trap wear debris when operating under dry sliding conditions and sometimes provide effects like enhancing oil supply (lubricant reservoir) which can lower friction coefficients and may enable reduced wear rate.

    ABOUT INTERNATIONAL ADVANCE CENTRE FOR POWDER METALLURGY & NEW MATERIALS (ARCI)


    ESTABLISHMENT: Established in the year 1997, ARCI is an Autonomous Research and Development Centre of Department of Science and Technology (DST)Government of India.





    LOCATION: The Main Campus of ARCI is located at BalapaurHyderabadAndhra Pradesh . ARCI’s Centre for Fuel Cell Technology (CFCT) and Centre for Automotive Energy Materials (CAEM) are located at Chennai. ARCI’s liason office is located at GurgaonHaryana.


    MANDATE: ARCI’s mandate is:
    • Development of High Performance Materials and Processes for Niche Markets
    • Demonstration of Technologies at Prototype / pilot scale
    • Transfer of Technology to Indian Industry
    FUNCTIONING: The activities are pursued through 11 Research Centres, with main focus on development of nationally unique technologies and application oriented programmes. Synonymous to its name, ARCI is also open to collaborate with Indian and foreign laboratories, universities and industries for successful achievement of its goals.

    ACHIEVEMENTS: ARCI has successfully transferred 15 technologies to 27 receivers and few other technologies are under transfer.


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