Daily Current Affairs: 12th February 2020: The Hindu+PIB

The following compilation has been made keeping in mind the need of the UPSC IAS exam. Each and every topic which has been included in this compilation is taken from very authentic and relevant source including The HinduThe Indian ExpressBusiness Standard, Press Information Bureau, etc.

download pdf

As per the evolving pattern of the UPSC IAS prelims and mains exam each and every topic has been handpicked keeping in mind the syllabus of the exam.

Table of Contents


    Context: The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) recently conducted the 10th round of National Deworming Day (NDD).


    KEY HIGHLIGHTS As part of this campaign, children and adolescents aged 1-19 years are being administered Albendazole (400 mg) across government, government-aided schools, anganwadis, private schools and other educational institutions.

    OBJECTIVE: The NDD is implemented with an objective to reduce the prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STH), commonly called the parasitic intestinal worms, among all children and adolescents.


    Every year February 10 and August 10 is observed as the National Deworming Day (NDD).

    Launched in 2015, the NDD is the largest public health programimplemented on asingle dayreaching crores of children and adolescents through two NDD rounds every year. This year,19 statestook up activities to reach 9.35 crore of the target population and it will be observed in34 States/UTsover thenext weeksand is expected to reach anestimated 30 crore of the target population.

    NDD is implemented in close collaboration with the Ministry of Women and Child Development and Ministry of Human Resource Development. It is a key intervention of Anemia Mukt Bharat.  NDD presents opportunities to further policy dialogue on health and nutrition as a way of supplementing efforts under POSHAN Abhiyaan.

    In February 2015, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare constituted NDD in 277 districts of 11 States and Union Territories (UTs) including Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Tripura

    In 2016, the NDD, a day and programme dedicated to deworm children, was scaled up to cover all the districts across the country. Since then it is observed twice a year on February 10 and August 10, across the nation.


    According to the World Health Organisation, about 241 million children in India in the ages of 1-14 years are at a risk of parasitic intestinal worms or STH. This means, India accounts for approximately 28% of the total number of children globally estimated to be at-risk of STH infections

    Infections with the main STHroundworm, whipworm and hookworms – contribute to 50.1 lakh disability adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide (WHO, 2010). One DALY can be thought of as one lost “healthy” year from a life.

    WHAT ARE INTESTINAL WORMS? Intestinal worms are those parasites that live in the human intestines and which consume nutrients and vitamins that a child consumes. There are basically three major types of STH that infect people, roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale). Being parasitic in nature, these worms depend on the human body for their food and survival and while being there, they lay thousands of eggs each day.



    Context: Presently, Phase-II of FAME India Scheme is being implemented for a period of 3 years from 01st April, 2019 with a total budgetary support of Rs. 10,000 crore.


    ABOUT FAME INDIA SCHEME? The Department of Heavy Industry is administrating Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME India) Scheme for promotion of adoption of electric/hybrid vehicles (xEVs) in India since 01st April, 2015.The Phase-I of the Scheme was extended from time to time and the last extension was allowed till 31st March 2019. In the First Phase of the Scheme about 2.8 lakh hybrid and electric vehicles are supported by way of demand incentive amounting to about Rs 359 crore. Further, DHI sanctioned 425 electric and hybrid buses to various cities in the country with total cost of about 300 Crores.  The Department of Heavy Industry also sanctioned about 500 Charging Stations/ Infrastructure for Rs.  43 Crore (approx.) in cities like Bangalore, Chandigarh, Jaipur and NCR of Delhi under Phase-I of FAME-India Scheme. ABOUT PHASE II OF FAME INDIA SCHEME Phase-II of FAME India Scheme is being implemented for a period of 3 years from 01st April, 2019 with a total budgetary support of Rs. 10,000 crore. This phase will mainly focus on supporting electrification of public & shared transportation, and aims to support through subsidies approx. 7000 e-Buses, 5 lakh e-3 Wheelers, 55000 e-4 Wheeler Passenger Cars and 10 lakh e-2 Wheelers Under Phase-II of FAME India Scheme, about 10,000 Electric Vehicles are supported by the way of Demand Incentive amounting to about Rs. 27 Cr In last 10 months about 11000 EVs have been purchased by consumers under FAME-II Scheme and efforts of DHI in establishment of charging Stations are resulting in increase in sale of EVs. WHAT ARE THE INITIATIVES TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT IN PROMOTING ELECTRIC/HYBRID VEHICLES? (i) Under new GST regime, GST on EVS is reduced from existing 12% rate to 5% as against the 28% GST rate with Cess up to 22% for conventional vehicles. (ii) Ministry of Power has allowed sale of electricity as service for charging of electric vehicles. This will provide a huge incentive to attract investments into charging infrastructure. (iii) The Government has also granted exemption to the Battery Operated Transport Vehicles and Transport Vehicles running on Ethanol and Methanol fuels from the requirements of permit. (iv) The Government has proposed exemption of registration fees for battery operated/electric vehicles to promote the use of eco-friendly vehicles in the country. (v) In the budget of 2019-20, the  Finance Minister announced for providing additional income tax deduction of Rs 1.5 lakh on the interest paid on loans taken to purchase electric vehicles.


    Context: Education is in the Concurrent List of the Indian Constitution and majority of the schools come under the jurisdiction of the respective States and Union Territory (UT) Government which is the appropriate Government under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009.


    There are a number of initiatives taken by the Government of India for improving the quality in school education in the country including NE Region. Some of these initiatives are enlisted below:

    • The Central rules to the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009 have been amended and class-wise, subject-wise Learning Outcomes have been shared with all States and Union Territories.
    • The National Achievement Survey (NAS) 2017 was held on 13th November 2017 for assessing the competencies developed by the children at the grade levels III, V and VIII. Subsequently, a framework of intervention has been developed and shared with States to improve the quality of learning in the schools.
    • The online D.El.Ed. course was started from 3rd October, 2017 and 56,125 teachers from NE Region have successfully completed the training.
    • In order to provide e-learning material, different facilities like e- PATHSHALA, DIKSHA portal, SWAYAM (Study Webs to Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds), SWAYAM PRABHA DTH Channels have been made available by the Ministry.
    • Under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Samagra Shiksha launched in 2018-19, funds are given to all States and UTs for strengthening of infrastructure and provision of other facilities in schools to ensure that all schools meet the prescribed norms, training of in-service steachers, headmasters and principals, remedial teaching for academically weaker students, provision of library grants to schools, ICT and digital initiatives, strengthening of teacher education institutions, Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan, Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat, etc.
    • An integrated Teacher Training Programme titled NISHTHA (National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement) has been launched to train around 3 lakh teachers and other functionaries in the NE States to make classrooms learner-friendly and improving children’s competencies.
    • MHRD has designed a 70 indicators based matrix called Performance Grading Index (PGI) to grade the States and UTs.


    • Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009: This Act enacted on 4 August 2009, describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between the age of 6 to 14 years in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution.
    • e- PATHSHALA: The ePathshala, a joint initiative of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Govt. of India and National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has been developed for showcasing and disseminating all educational e-resources including textbooks, audio, video, periodicals, and a variety of other digital resources. 
      • The ePathshala Mobile app is designed to achieve the SDG Goal no. 4 as well i.e. equitable, quality, inclusive education and lifelong learning for all and bridging the digital divide.
    • DIKSHA portal: DIKSHA is a unique initiative of MHRD and National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE)  which leverages existing highly scalable and flexible digital infrastructures, while keeping teachers at the center. 
      • It is built considering the whole teacher’s life cycle – from the time student teachers enroll in Teacher Education Institutes (TEIs) to after they retire as teachers.
      • DIKSHA will serve as National Digital Infrastructure for Teachers
    • SWAYAM (Study Webs to Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds): SWAYAM is the indigenous platform of the MHRD, GOI which provides an integrated portal and platform for hosting Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) developed under the aegis of National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NMEICT) (NME-ICT)
    • SWAYAM PRABHA DTH Channels: The SWAYAM PRABHA is a group of 32 DTH channels which are devoted to telecasting of high-quality educational programmes on 24X7 basis using the GSAT-15 satellite
      • Every day, there will be new content for at least (4) hours which would be repeated 5 more times in a day, allowing the students to choose the time of their convenience. 
      • The channels are uplinked from BISAG, Gandhinagar.
      • The contents are provided by NPTEL, IITs, UGC, CEC, IGNOU, NCERT and NIOS. 
      • The INFLIBNET Centre maintains the web portal. 
    • Samagra Shiksha Scheme: Samagra Shiksha – an overarching programme for the school education sector extending from pre-school to class 12 has been prepared with the broader goal of improving school effectiveness measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling and equitable learning outcomes. 
      • It subsumes the three erstwhile Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).
      • The Scheme will be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme through a single State Implementation Society (SIS) at the State/UT level. At the National level, there would be a Governing Council headed by Minister of Human Resource Development and a Project Approval Board (PAB) headed by Secretary, Department of School Education and Literacy.
      • The fund sharing pattern for the scheme between Centre and States is at present in the ratio of 90:10 for the 8 North-Eastern States viz. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura and 3 Himalayan States viz. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand and 60:40 for all other States and Union Territories with Legislature. It is 100% centrally sponsored for Union Territories without Legislature.
    • NISHTHA (National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement):  It is an initiative to build capacities of teachers and school principals at the elementary stage
      • The initiative is an Integrated Teacher Training Programme of the Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of HRD as part of its National Mission to improve learning outcomes at the Elementary level under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Samagra Shiksha during 2019-20.
    • Performance Grading Index (PGI): The Performance Grading Index (PGI) is a tool to provide insights on the status of school education in States and UTs including key levers that drive their performance and critical areas for improvement.
      • Department of School Education and Literacy (DoSEL) has designed the PGI to catalyse transformational change in the field of school education.



      Context: Reportedly, Punjab has been excluded from the coverage of Atal Bhujal Yojana (Atal Jal).


      ABOUT ATAL BHUJAL YOJANA Atal Bhujal Yojana (ATAL JAL) is a Central Sector Scheme of the Ministry of Jal Shakti to improve ground water management through community participation. The scheme has a total outlay of Rs.6000 crore and is to be implemented over a period of 5 years (2020-21 to 2024-25) with the financial assistance of World Bank with a sharing pattern of 50:50 between Government of India and World Bank. The Department of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation, Ministry of Jal Shakti is adopting a mix of ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ approaches in identified ground water stressed blocks in 7 states, representing a range of geomorphic, climatic and hydrogeologic and cultural settings. The water stressed blocks covered under the scheme includes Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. 


      ATAL BHUJAL YOJANA has two major components:

      • Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building Component for strengthening institutional arrangements for sustainable ground water management in the States including improving monitoring networks, capacity building, strengthening of Water User Associations, etc.
      • Incentive Component for incentivising the States for achievements in improved groundwater management practices namely, data dissemination, preparation of water security plans, implementation of management interventions through convergence of ongoing schemes, adopting demand side management practices etc.


      Context:  Government of India is developing the Electronic Skill Credential Standard (ESCS) Specifications that would enable candidates to verifiably state their skill levels.


      Directorate General of Training (DGT), Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship proposes to issue digital ‘e-Credentials / e-Certificates’ which are freely portable for candidates and easily verifiable at scale by employers and job matching platforms but continue to allow print and other visual forms for human consumption. 

      This would enable candidates to verifiably state their skill levels with a high degree of trust in authenticity to aggregators, matchers, and employers. Now in the DGT ecosystem, all the certificates are ‘e-Certificates’, digitally signed.


      e-Credentials are an electronic scheme-based standard for describing credentials data in a machine-readable format (JSON-LD representation of RDF- a Resource Description Framework, a web standard) along with its printable human-friendly version to make credential exchange between digital agents open and reliable

      Certificates issued as per this specification can be aligned to one or more educational standards. They are secured using digital signatures.These will also be pushed in DigiLocker.

      This standard is an open standard, free to use, and does not cost anything extra to the Government or the student.


      DigiLocker is an online service provided by Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY), Government of India under its Digital India initiative. DigiLocker provides an account in cloud to every Indian citizen to access authentic documents/certificates such as driving license, vehicle registration, academic mark list in digital format from the original issuers of these certificates. It also provides 1GB storage space to each account to upload scanned copies of legacy documents.

      The beta version of the service was rolled out in February 2015,[2] and launched by the Prime Minister on 1 July 2015.[3][4] The storage space provided was 100 MB initially, and was later increased to 1 GB.[5] The individual file size for upload cannot exceed 10 MB.


      • In July 2016, DigiLocker recorded 20.13 lakh users with a repository of 24.13 lakh documents.
      • From 2017, the facility was extended to allow students of ICSE board to store their class X and XII certificates in DigiLocker and share them with agencies as required.  
      • In February 2017, Kotak Mahindra Bank started providing access to documents in DigiLocker from within its net-banking application, allowing users to e-sign them and forward as needed.
      • In May 2017, over 108 hospitals, including the Tata Memorial Hospital were planning to launch the use of DigiLocker for storing cancer patients’ medical documents and test reports. According to a UIDAI architect, patients would be provided a number key, which they can share with another hospital to allow them to access their test reports.
      • As of December 2019, DigiLocker provides access to over 372+ crore authentic documents from 149 issuers. Over 3.3 crore users are registered on DigiLocker. 43 requester organisations are accepting documents from DigiLocker.



      Context: Approximately 42.15 lakh ha (Drip 22.81 lakh ha & Sprinkler 19.34 lakh ha) has been covered under PMKSY-PDMC since 2015-16 till date.



      Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana is basically a national mission to improve farm productivity and ensure better utilization of the resources in the country. With an outlay of Rs.50,000 crores for a period of 5 years (2015-16 to 2019-20) is to achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level.

      The Government provides financial assistance @ 55% for small and marginal farmers and @ 45% for other farmers for installation of Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation systems. 

      OBJECTIVE: The major objective of PMKSY is to achieve:

      • Convergence of investments in irrigation at the field level;
      • Expand cultivable area under assured irrigation;
      • Improve on-farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage of water;
      • Enhance the adoption of precision-irrigation and other water saving technologies (More crop per drop);
      • Enhance recharge of aquifers; 
      • Introduce sustainable water conservation practices.

      PMKSY has been conceived amalgamating ongoing schemes viz. 

      • Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) of the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation (MoWR,RD&GR);
      • Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of Department of Land Resources (DoLR);
      • On Farm Water Management (OFWM) of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC).

      The scheme is implemented by Ministries of Agriculture, Water Resources and Rural Development. The programme is supervised and monitored by an Inter-Ministerial National Steering Committee (NSC) constituted under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister with Union Ministers from concerned Ministries. A National Executive Committee (NEC)  constituted under the Chairmanship of Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog oversees the programme implementation, allocation of resources, inter ministerial coordination, monitoring & performance assessment, addressing administrative issues etc.

      PMKSY is to be implemented in an area development approach allowing the states to draw their irrigation development plans based on district/blocks plans with a horizon of 5 to 7 years. States can take up projects based on the District/State Irrigation Plan.

      All the States and Union Territories including North Eastern States are covered under the programme.


      The Scheme has following as its key components:

      • Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP) by MoWR,RD &GR: Focuses on faster completion of ongoing Major and Medium Irrigation including National Projects.
      • PMKSY (Har Khet ko Pani) by MoWR,RD &GR: Creation ofnew water sources through Minor Irrigation (both surface and ground water).
        • Creating and rejuvenating traditional water storage systems like Jal Mandir (Gujarat); Khatri, Kuhl (H.P.); Zabo (Nagaland); Eri, Ooranis (T.N.); Dongs (Assam); Katas, Bandhas (Odisha and M.P.) etc. at feasible locations.
      • PMKSY (Per Drop More Crop): This components covers the following perspective of the scheme:
        • Programme management, preparation of State/District Irrigation Plan, approval of annual action plan, Monitoring etc.
        • Promoting efficient water conveyance and precision water application devices like drips, sprinklers, pivots, rain – guns in the farm (Jal Sinchan);
        • Topping up of input cost particularly under civil construction beyond permissible limit (40%), under MGNREGS for activities like lining inlet, outlet, silt traps, distribution system etc.
        • Construction of micro irrigation structures to supplement source creation activities including tube wells and dug wells which are not supported under AIBP, PMKSY (Har Khet ko Pani), PMKSY (Watershed) and MGNREGS as per block/district irrigation plan.
        • Secondary storage structures at tail end of canal system to store water when available in abundance (rainy season) or from perennial sources like streams for use during dry periods through effective on – farm water management;
        • Water lifting devices like diesel/ electric/ solar pumpsets including water carriage pipes, underground piping system.
        • Extension activities for promotion of scientific moisture conservation and agronomic measures including cropping alignment to maximise use of available water including rainfall and minimise irrigation requirement (Jal sarankchan);
        • Information Communication Technology (ICT) interventions through NeGP to be made use in the field of water use efficiency, precision irrigation technologies, on farm water management, crop alignment etc. and also to do intensive monitoring of the Scheme.
      • PMKSY (Watershed Development)
        • Effective management of runoff water and improved soil & moisture conservation activities such as ridge area treatment, drainage line 5 treatment, rain water harvesting, in – situ moisture conservation and other allied activities o n watershed basis.
        • Converging with MGNREGS for creation of water source to full potential in identified backward rainfed blocks including renovation of traditional water bodies.


      Context: The Union Minister for Railways, Commerce and Industry, Shri Piyush Goyal, the Union Minister for Minority Affairs, Shri Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi and the Union Minister for Urban Development (Independent Charge), Shri Hardeep Singh Puri will inaugurate the 20th “Hunar Haat” on 13th February, 2020.


      This year’s “Hunar Haat”, to be organised by Ministry of Minority Affairs from 13th February, 2020 at India Gate Lawns, Rajpath, New Delhi will be based on the theme of “Kaushal Ko Kaam”. KEY INFORMATION

      • Hunar Haat is an exhibition of handicrafts and traditional products made by artisans from the Minority communities. The scheme aims to establish Hunar Hub in all the states where programs like Hunar Haati and other cultural events are to be organized. 
      • It is organized by Ministry of Ministry of Minority Affairs. 
      • Hunar Haat is organized under USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills and Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development) scheme which inter-alia, aims to preserve heritage of traditional arts and crafts of minorities and build capacity of traditional crafts persons and artisans.
      • “Hunar Haat” has become a “Mega Mission” of indigenous Craft, Cuisine & Culture and economic empowerment of master artisans, craftsmen.
      • Narendra Modi-led Government has sanctioned 100 “Hunar Hubs” in different parts of the country. Training is being provided to master artisans, craftsmen and traditional culinary experts according to modern needs in these “Hunar Hubs”.
      • So far, “Hunar Haat” have been organized at various places in the country such as Delhi, Mumbai, Prayagraj, Lucknow, Jaipur, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Puducherry and Indore
      • The next “Hunar Haat” will be organized at Ranchi from 29th February to 8th March and in Chandigarh from 13th to 22nd March, 2020.
      • In the coming days, “Hunar Haat” will be organized in Gurugram, Bengaluru, Chennai, Kolkata, Dehradun, Patna, Bhopal, Nagpur, Raipur, Puducherry, Amritsar, Jammu, Shimla, Goa, Kochi, Guwahati, Bhubneshwar, Ajmer and other places.



      Context: The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT), Kochi bench, on directed for initiation of Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP) under Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code (IBC), 2016 and appointed an Interim Resolution Professional (IRP) for Hindustan News Print Ltd.(HNL).


      Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited (HPC), the parent company of HNL,is under liquidation as per the orders of the NCLT, New Delhi Bench and the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal (NCLAT).  On 25.11.2019, the NCLT, New Delhi granted permission to the Liquidator, HPC to sell the 100% shareholding of HPC in HNL to the Government of Kerala. ABOUT NATIONAL COMPANY LAW TRIBUNAL

      The National Company Law Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body in India that adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies. The tribunal was established under the Companies Act 2013.  It wasconstituted on 1 June 2016by the government of India and is based on the recommendation of the Justice Jain committee on law relating to insolvency and winding up of companies. All proceedings under the Companies Act, including proceedings relating to arbitration, compromise, arrangements and reconstruction and winding up of companies shall be disposed of by the National Company Law Tribunal. It is the adjudicating authority for insolvency resolution process of companies and limited liability partnerships under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016. No criminal court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal is empowered to determine by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force. Further, no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force, by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal.  BENCHES: The tribunal has following benches in operation: 

      • 6 at New Delhi (one being the principal bench).
      • 5 at Mumbai
      • 3 at Hyderabad (of which 1 at Amaravathi).
      • 2 each at Ahmedabad, Chennai and Kolkata.
      • 1 each at Allahabad, Bengaluru, Chandigarh, Cuttack, Jaipur, Kochi, and Guwahati.

      PRESIDENT: Justice M.M. Kumar, a retired Chief Justice of the Jammu & Kashmir High Court has been appointed President of the Tribunal.

      POWERS: The National Company Law Tribunal has the power under the Companies Act to adjudicate proceedings:

      • Initiated before the Company Law Board under the previous act (the Companies Act 1956);

      • Pending before the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction, including those pending under the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985;

      • Pending before the Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction; and

      • Pertaining to claims of oppression and mismanagement of a company, winding up of companies and all other powers prescribed under the Companies Act.

      APPEALS: Decisions of the tribunal may be appealed to the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal, the decisions of which may further be appealed to the Supreme Court of India on a point of law. The Supreme Court of India has upheld the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code in its entirety.

        Follow us on:

        Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/upscindiathinkers

        Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/ias_hub

        Join us on Telegram: http://t.me/ExamGuideUpsc

        Print Friendly, PDF & Email