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The following compilation has been made keeping in mind the need of the UPSC IAS exam. Each and every topic which has been included in this compilation is taken from very authentic and relevant source including The HinduThe Indian ExpressBusiness Standard, Press Information Bureau, etc.

As per the evolving pattern of the UPSC IAS prelims and mains exam each and every topic has been handpicked keeping in mind the syllabus of the exam.


Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently hailed the historic Bodo Peace Accord and has claimed that the Accord will lead to transformative results for the Bodo people.


The pact provides political and economic bonanza to the tribals, without the outfit's key demand of a separate Bodoland state or union territory.


This is basically the third Bodo accord to be signed in last 27 years when the violent movement for a separate Bodoland state claimed hundreds of lives, destruction of public and private properties.

The first Bodo accord was signed with the All Bodo Students Union (ABSU) in 1993, leading to creation of a Bodoland Autonomous Council with limited political powers.

In 2003, the second Bodo accord was signed with the militant group Bodo Liberation Tigers (BLT), leading to formation of a Bodoland Territorial Council (BTC) with four districts of Assam -- Kokrajhar, Chirang, Baska and Udalguri -- called the Bodoland Territorial Area District (BTAD).

The BTC has control over 30 subjects like education, forests, horticulture but no jurisdiction on the police, revenue and general administration departments, which are controlled by the Assam government. The BTC was formed under the 6th Schedule of the Constitution.

The demand for a separate state for the Bodos has been going on in Assam for about five decades and several Bodo overground and militant groups raising it leading to agitations, protests, violence and many deaths.

About the Bodo Tribe

The Bodo are an ethnolinguistic (united by both language and ethinicity)  group in the Indian state of Assam. They are a part of the greater Bodo-Kachari family of ethnolinguistic groups and are spread across north-eastern India and clustered strongly in Assam, along the eastern Duars. 

Bodos are politically active and dominant in the Kokrajhar, Baska, Udalguri and Chirang districts of the Bodoland autonomous region in the state of Assam.

The Bodo people speak the Bodo language, a Tibeto-Burman language recognized as one of twenty-two scheduled languages in the Indian Constitution. 

The Bodo people are recognized as a plains tribe in the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. 

The Bodo people are concentrated within the Assamese districts of UdalguriChirangBaksaSonitpurGoalparaDhemajiLakhimpur, and Kokrajhar.



Context: 15 MoUs has been signed during the visit of the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil, Jair Bolsonaro.

India-Brazil Relation; Indiathinkers

Key Highlights

These 15 MoUs signed shows the power of democracy, demography, leadership, the talent pool available in India, India’s market and the aspirations of one billion Indian citizens for a better life

The MoUs of cooperation that have been signed during the presidential visit on investments, trade facilitation, social security, agriculture, defence and double taxation makes this the most productive visit by a Brazilian Head of State.

Commerce and Industry Minister hoped that investments will also grow in the sectors of clean energy, startups, railways and creation of value chains between India and Brazil where goods may be semi assembled in one country and finished in another. 

According to the report, the entire Indian Railway will be fully electrified by 2024 and by 2030 the railway network in India will run completely on clean energy with zero emission.

The announcement made during the visit of President of Brazil to India for visa free travel between the two countries was also welcomed. 

Commerce and Industry Minister also urged that the India – Brazil Business Leader’s Forum may be activated and reconstituted to make it more relevant and contemporary to businesses in both countries.

India’s services in wellness sector like Yoga and Ayurveda will further grow as Brazil has a strong community of Yoga and Ayurveda practitioners. Brazil has an association of Ayurveda (ABRA), a non-profit association with offices in 9 states of Brazil and members all over Brazil and the third International Congress on Ayurveda was held from 12 to 15 March 2018 in Rio de Janeiro. The conference saw participation of more than 4000 delegates, including many from India.

India and Brazil share close relationship at the bilateral level as well as plurilateral fora like BRICS, BASIC, G-20, IBSA, International Solar Alliance and in larger multilateral bodies like UN, UNESCO and WIPO.

 DefExpo 2020

Context: The 11th edition of the biennial mega defence exhibition, DefExpo 2020, to be held at Uttar Pradesh capital Lucknow between February 5-9, 2020.

 DefExpo 2020, Indiathinkers

Theme:  ‘India: The Emerging Defence Manufacturing Hub’. The sub theme of the exhibition is ‘Digital Transformation of Defence’ which aligns with the concept of the future battlefield.

Aim: The aim is to bring the leading technologies in the defence sector under one roof and provide a myriad of opportunities for the government,private manufactures and startups.

Key Highlights 

The number of companies registered for participating in the 11th edition has reached 1,000. In the DefExpo 2018, held in Chennai, 702 companies had participated. Thus, it has become by far the biggest ever DefExpo to be held in India. The event will cover the entire spectrum of the country's aerospace, defence and security interests.

The Central government has set up Defence Industrial Corridor in Uttar Pradesh with identification of 6 nodes. A Defence Planning Committee has also been formed. In this regard, the Government of UP has planned to build a defence manufacturing corridor along with the proposed Bundelkhand Expressway which will help in making India self-reliant in the field of defence production. The DefExpo will play the role of a catalyst in attracting not only investments but also cutting-edge technologies to the region.

As part of the DefExpo 2020, business seminars are being organised by both international and Indian Industry chambers viz. Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI), PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry, National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), SYNERGIA, Directorate of Standardisation (DOS)/Department of Defence Production (DDP), US-India Business Council (USIBC), US-India Strategic Partnership Forum (USISPF), etc. 

The seminar topics are futuristic and include discussions on artificial intelligence, robotics, Internet of Things (IoTs), drones, wired warrior, etc.



Context: The 3rd Global Potato Conclave will be addressed by PM Narendra Modi at Gandhinagar, Gujarat on 28th of January 2020. The Potato Conference will be held for 3 days during 28-30 January, 2020.

Global Potato Enclave 2020; Indiathinkers

Bodies involved: The Conclave is being organized by Indian Potato Association (IPA) in collaboration with Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, and ICAR-Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla and International Potato Center (CIP), Lima, Peru.

Background: The present conclave is the third in the series. During last two decades two Global Potato Conferences were organized during 1999, and 2008.

Aim: The Conclave will provide an opportunity so that all the issues are discussed and future plans are made involving everyone related to the potato sector. 

Key Highlights of the Event

This mega event has three major components;
(i) The Potato Conference, 
(ii) The Agri Expo  
(iii) Potato Field Day.

The Potato Conference will be held for 3 days during 28-30 January, 2020. It will have 10 themes out of which 8 themes are based on basic and applied research. The remaining two themes will have special emphasis on potato trade, value chain management and policy issues.

AgriExpo will be organized during 28 to 30 January, 2020, to showcase the status of potato-based industries and trade, processing, seed potato production, biotechnology, public-private partnership in technology transfer and farmers related products etc.

Potato Field Day will be organized on January 31, 2020. This will include demonstration of advancements in potato mechanization, potato varieties and latest technologies.

The major issues that are to crop up are Shortage of Planting Material, Supply Chains, Post-Harvest Losses, needs for enhanced processing, export and diversified utilisation and necessary policy support – viz for production and use of certified seed, for long distance transport and export promotion.

Note: Gujarat is one of the leading producers of Potato in the country. In the last 11 years alone, while the area under potato in India, has increased by 19%, it has increased by about 170% in GujaratWith a productivity of more than 30t/ha, Gujarat is holding the No. 1 position in India for last one decade.


Context: The 2020 Global Talent Competitiveness Index (GTCI) report compiled by INSEAD in collaboration with human resource firm Addeco and Google was released in Davos, Switzerland.

Global Talent Competitiveness Index; Indiathinkers

It was launched for the first time in 2014, the Global Talent Competitiveness Index (GTCI) is an annual benchmarking report that measures the ability of countries to compete for talent.

Key Highlights

India has climbed eight places to 72nd rank in the 2020 Global Talent Competitiveness Index (GTCI), which was topped by Switzerland, the US and Singapore.

Sweden (4th), Denmark (5th), the Netherlands (6th), Finland (7th), Luxembourg (8th), Norway (9th) and Australia (10th) complete the top 10 league table.

In the BRICS grouping, China was ranked 42nd, Russia (48th), South Africa (70th) and Brazil at 80th position.

India’s highest-ranked sub-pillar is employability, but the ability to match labour market demand and supply stands in contrast to the country's poor "mid-level skills", which result in a mediocre score in vocational and technical skills.

India's key strength relates to growing (44th) talent, due to its levels of lifelong learning (40th) and access to growth opportunities (39th).

The report further noted that the gap between high income, talent-rich nations and the rest of the world is widening. More than half of the population in the developing world lack basic digital skills.



Context: An order has been issued by the Lieutenant Governor of Delhi Anil Baijal which gave the Police Commissioner the power to detain individuals under the tough National Security Act (NSA), 1980.

National Security Act, 1980; Indiathinkers

What are the sections mentioned under the order?

The January 10 notification speaks of “powers conferred by the sub-section (3) of section 3, read with clause (e) of Section 2 of the National Security Act, 1980”.

As per the Section 3 of the Act which deals with the “Power to make orders detaining certain persons” and Section 3(3) of the Act, which is mentioned in the notification, says:

If, having regard to the circumstances prevailing or likely to prevail in any area within the local limits of the jurisdiction of a District Magistrate or a Commissioner of Police, the State Government is satisfied that it is necessary so to do, it may, by order in writing, direct, that during such period as may be specified in the order, such District Magistrate or Commissioner of Police may also, if satisfied as provided in sub-section (2), exercise the powers conferred by the said sub-section…

Further, this Section 3(2) of the NSA, 1980, provides for the power of detention.

Section 3(3) also specifies the duration for which the order can be in force. It says that “the period specified in an order made by the State Government under this sub-section shall not, in the first instance, exceed three months”However, “the State Government may, if satisfied… it is necessary so to do,… extend such period from time to time by any period not exceeding three months at any one time”.

The January 10 notification mentions “the period 19/01/2020 to 18/04/2020”, i.e. three months.

The other section of the NSA Act mentioned in the January 10 notification is Section 2(e). This section clarifies that the “state government”, in relation to a Union territory, means the administrator thereof”.

About the National Security Act, 1980

The NSA, which was passed by Parliament after Indira Gandhi returned to power in 1980, received the assent of President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy on December 27, 1980, and was notified in the official gazette.

The NSA was described as “an Act to provide for preventive detention in certain cases and for matters connected therewith”. The Act repealed the National Security Ordinance, 1980.

The Act has been widely criticised as being “draconian” because of the powers of preventive detention that it gives to the government. The detention under the NSA can extend up to 12 months — or even for longer if the government is able to produce more evidence against the detainee.


Context: The voice of an ancient human being have been reconstructed by the scientists for the first time. The being is a 3000-year-old Egyptian mummy named Nesyamun (as per his coffin inscriptions).


Key Highlights

Nesyamun, also known as The Leeds Mummy, is an Egyptian mummy from around 1100 BC held at Leeds City Museum. Nesyamun was a priest, incense-bearer and scribe at the Egyptian temple complex at Karnak. He died in around 1100 BC.

Sound reproduction: The sound, which has been reproduced, is “vowel-like” and has been produced based on precise measurements of the mummy’s existing vocal tract.

How this was done?

These measurements were determined by taking a computerised tomography (CT) scan of the mummy. The researchers then built a three dimensional model of the mummy’s vocal tract using a 3D printer and by connecting it to an electronic larynx were able to produce an output.

The process of creating 3-D printed vocal tracts was based on a technique proposed by Bertrand Delvaux.

Significance of Sound reproduction: One of the modern applications of this voice synthesis technique includes “giving back” vocal sounds to those individuals who have lost normal vocal fold function following physical trauma, for instance. 

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