Daily Current Affairs: 23rd October 2019: The Hindu+PIB
The following compilation has been made keeping in mind the need of the UPSC IAS exam. Each and every topic which has been included in this compilation is taken from very authentic and relevant source including The Hindu, The Indian Express, Business Standard, Press Information Bureau, etc.
As per the evolving pattern of the UPSC IAS prelims and mains exam each and every topic has been handpicked keeping in mind the syllabus of the exam.
PULSE POLIO PROGRAMME
Context: 31st October 2019 marked the 25 years of the PULSE POLIO PROGRAMME in India.
BACKGROUND It was in 1988, when the World Health Assembly (WHA) passed a resolution to launch the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). The Government of Delhi, under leadership of Dr. Harsh Vardhan, piloted the first ever large scale supplementary immunization campaign with Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) in 1994 giving birth to the “Pulse Polio” immunization campaign with the iconic ‘Do Boond Zindagi Ki’ tagline, on 2nd October 1994, Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday.
The campaign in Delhi reached nearly one million children up to the age of three years with two doses of OPV being administered on 02 October and 04 December through exclusive booth-based strategy. This strategy was later adopted and implemented by Government of India as Pulse Polio Campaigns. India’s attainment of polio-free status in 2014 was coined by the World Health Organization as “one of the most significant achievements in public health,” and marked not just India but the entire South East Asia Region being declared polio-free. Key Takeaways from the Programme In the programme, children in the age group of 0-5 years administered polio drops during National and Sub-national immunization rounds (in high risk areas) every year. Approximately more than 17.4 crore children of less than five years across the country are given polio drops as part of the drive of Government of India to sustain polio eradication from the country. The last polio case in the country was reported from Howrah district of West Bengal with date of onset 13th January 2011. After that, no polio case has been reported in the country. It was on 24th February 2012 when WHO removed India from the list of countries with active endemic wild polio virus transmission. Programme Objective: One of the key objective under the Programme was achieving 100% coverage under Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). Steps taken by the Government
- Maintenance of a very high level of vigilance through surveillance across the country for any importation or circulation of poliovirus and VDPV is being done.
- There has been establishment of Environmental surveillance (sewage sampling) to detect poliovirus transmission and as a surrogate indicator of the progress as well for any programmatic interventions strategically in Mumbai, Delhi, Patna, Kolkata Punjab and Gujarat.
- Rapid Response Team (RRT) has been developed by all States and Union Territories in the country to respond to any polio outbreak in the country.
- Further, an Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan (EPRP) has also been developed by all States indicating steps to be undertaken in case of detection of a polio case.
- International border vaccination is being provided through continuous vaccination teams (CVT) to all eligible children round the clock, in order to reduce risk of importation from neighbouring countries. These are provided through special booths set up at the international borders that India shares with Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan Nepal and Myanmar.
- Guidelines for mandatory requirement of polio vaccination has been issued by Government of India to all international travelers before their departure from India to polio affected countries namely: Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Syria and Cameroon. This mandatory requirement is in effect for travellers from 1st March 2014.
- Maintenance of a rolling emergency stock of OPV is being ensured to respond to detection/importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) or emergence of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV).
- Further, National Technical Advisory Group on Immunization (NTAGI) has recommended Injectable Polio Vaccine (IPV) introduction as an additional dose along with 3rd dose of DPT in the entire country in the last quarter of 2015 as a part of polio endgame strategy.
- South-East Asia Region of WHO has been certified polio free.
- On 27th March 2014, the Regional Certification Commission (RCC) issued certificate regarding the polio free status.
- India has achieved the goal of polio eradication as no polio case has been reported for more than 3 years after last case reported on 13th January, 2011.
- On 24th February 2012, WHO removed India from the list of countries with active endemic wild polio virus transmission.
- There are about 24 lakh vaccinators and 1.5 lakh supervisors who are involved in the successful implementation of the Pulse Polio Programme.
50th International Film Festival of India
Context: The International Film Festival of India (IFFI), Goa celebrates its Golden Jubilee Edition from 20th-28th November, 2019. The 50th IFFI has announced the films in Open Air Screening section of the festival. IFFI organises Open Air Screenings (OAS) to bring the best of Cinematic experience to the Cine enthusiast every year.
OAS will be open to everyone and will not require any registration. The entry would be free for all. THEME: The theme of the Open Air Screenings for 50th International Film Festival of India (IFFI), Goa would be ‘The Joy of Cinema’. This year, the screenings will be organised at two venues –
- Joggers Park (Altinho, Panjim): For movies on comedy and related genres. The movies to be featured are:
- Chalti Ka Naam Gaadi (1958)
- Padosan (1968)
- Andaz Apna Apna (1994)
- Hera Pheri (2000)
- Chennai Express (2013)
- Badhaai Ho (2018)
- Total Dhamaal (2019)
- Miramar Beach,Panjim: For movies of the Indian Panorama section.
- Nachom-ia Kumpasar (Konkani)
- Super 30 (Hindi)
- Anandi Gopal (Marathi)
- Uri : The Surgical Strike (Hindi)
- Hellaro (Gujarati)
- Gully Boy (Hindi)
- F2 – Fun and Frustration (Telugu)
Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
Context: Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) and Goa Government and have come together with an aim to generate employment opportunities in Goa. What are the steps taken in this regard? As part of their initiatives which are first of its kind in Goa, distribution of electric potter wheels to 160 families and new models Charkhas (spinning wheels) to 50 trained women was done which is supposed to create direct employment to 700 people. Lijjat Papad unit in Goa, which will create 200 direct jobs to the local women is also planned to be established by KVIC. Further, in a short span of two months, KVIC has identified beneficiaries from various villages such as Morjim, Old Goa, Panjim, Bicholim, Sakhali, Mappasa, Dabhal and Madgaon and organized trainings in pottery, bee keeping, spinning and Papad making in a bid to assist the locals and help in creation of jobs. KVIC also participated in the vibrant Goa event as partner and put up 30 stalls to showcase various Khadi and Village Industries products from across the country. About KVIC The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is a statutory body which was established by an Act of Parliament. In April 1957, it took over the work of former All India Khadi and Village Industries Board. The broad objectives that the KVIC has set before it are:
- Social objective: Providing employment.
- Economic objective: Producing saleable articles.
- Wider objective: Creating self-reliance amongst the poor and building up of a strong rural community spirit.
The KVIC is responsible for the planning, promotion, organisation and implementation of programs for the development of Khadi and other village industries in the rural areas in coordination with other agencies engaged in rural development wherever necessary. It is also responsible for building up of a reserve of raw materials and implements for supply to producers, creation of common service facilities for processing of raw materials as semi-finished goods and provisions of facilities for marketing of KVIC products apart from organisation of training of artisans engaged in these industries and encouragement of co-operative efforts amongst them. Studies concerning the problems of Khadi and/or village industries are also taken up by KVIC directly or through other agencies besides research or establishing pilot projects for the development of Khadi and village industries. The KVIC is authorized to establish and maintain separate organisations for the purpose of carrying out any or all of the above matters besides carrying out any other matters incidental to its activities.
Context: “Hunar Haat” has proved to be an effective programme that provide employment and employment opportunities to master artisans. With the help of this programme, the ‘HUNAR HAAT’, Government has planned to provide employment and employment opportunities to lakhs of artisans, craftsmen and traditional culinary experts in the next 5 years.
The next version of “Hunar Haat” is planned to be organised at North Central Zone Cultural Centre in Prayagraj (UP) from 01st to 10th November, 2019 in which more than 300 master artisans and culinary experts including a large number of women artisans from every corner of the country are going to participate. Further, it is to be noted that all the “Hunar Haat”, to be organised in 2019 and 2020 will be based on the theme of “Ek Bharat Shresth Bharat”. Ministry of Minority Affairs has taken a major decision to organise about 100 “Hunar Haat” in the next 5 years across the country in order to provide market and employment and employment opportunities to master artisans and culinary experts. In the coming days, “Hunar Haat” will be organized in Delhi, Gurugram, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Ahmedabad, Dehradun, Patna, Indore, Bhopal, Nagpur, Raipur, Hyderabad, Puducherry, Chandigarh, Amritsar, Jammu, Shimla, Goa, Kochi, Guwahati, Ranchi, Bhubneshwar, Ajmer and other places. The artisans from across the country will be bringing indigenous handmade exquisite pieces which includes:
- Assam: Cane & Bamboo, Jute Products.
- Uttar Pradesh: Varanasi Silk, Lucknawi Chikankari, Ceramic, Glassware, Leather, Marble products.
- Gujarat: Traditional handicrafts from North Eastern Region, Ajrakh, Bandhej, Mud work, Copper products.
- Andhra Pradesh: Kalamkari & Mangalgiri from
- Rajasthan: Marble artefacts and Handicrafts
- Bihar: Madhubani painting
- Himachal Pradesh and Karnataka: Wooden work
- Madhya Pradesh: Block Print
- Puducherry: Jewelry and Pearls
- Tamil Nadu: Embroidery and sandalwood products.
- West Bengal: Hand embroidery products.
- Kashmir-Laddakh: Rare Ayurvedic herbs.
2017 Crime in India report
Context: A 30% jump in cases recorded as “offences against the State” according to the recently released 2017 Crime in India Report. The report has been released by National Crime Control Bureau (NCRB). Key Findings of the Report
- The total number of cases registered in 2017 stood at 9,013 as compared to 6,986 cases registered in 2016.
- The maximum number of these cases were reported from Haryana (2,576), Uttar Pradesh (2,055) and Tamil Nadu (1,802).
- While 51 cases of sedition were reported in 2017, there were 24 cases related to imputation and assertion prejudicial to national integration.
- Under the Official Secrets Act, a total of 18 cases were reported and 901 cases were registered under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act.
- In 2017, the police across India was investigating 16,170 cases of crimes against the state, of this, 7,514 were pending since 2016.
- The total number of such cases committed by northeast insurgents stood at 421, with the maximum – 317 – reported from Manipur. Those by Left Wing Extremists stood at 652 and that committed by “jihadi terrorists” was 377.
- The NCRB report, which is published after a delay of 2 years, has included 88 new categories including sexual harassment of women at the workplace/public transport, offences relating to elections, obscene acts at public places, circulation of fake news, chit funds, cases under the Prevention of Corruption Act and Mental Health Act, noise pollution and defacement of public property.
- A new category called “anti-national elements” has been added which includes details of “jihadi terrorists, Left Wing Extremism and North East insurgents.”
- For the first time, “cyber stalking and bullying of women” has been included in the report and a total of 542 cases were reported under this category with the maximum incidents recorded in Maharashtra (301).
About NCRB In 1986, NCRB was set-up to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators based on the recommendations of the Tandon Committee to the National Police Commission (1977-1981) and the MHA’s Task force (1985). Subsequently, NCRB was entrusted with the responsibility for monitoring, coordinating and implementing the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) project in the year 2009.
GLOBAL WEALTH REPORT 2019
Context: The 10th Edition of the annual Global Wealth Report has been recently released by The Credit Suisse Group, which is a Switzerland-based multinational investment bank. The report so released tracks both the growth and distribution of wealth – in terms of the numbers of millionaires and billionaires and the proportion of wealth that they hold – as well as the status of inequality around the world. As per the Report, Wealth is defined in terms of “net worth” of an individual. This, in turn, is calculated by adding up the value of financial assets (such as money) and real assets (such as houses) and then deducting any debts an individual may have. Key Findings of the Report This year, China has overtaken the United States to become “the country with most people in the top 10% of global wealth distribution”. Just 47 million people – that accounts for merely 0.9% of the world’s adult population – owned $158.3 trillion, which is almost 44% of the world’s total wealth. About 2.88 billion people on the other end of the spectrum – accounts for almost 57% of the world’s adult population – who owned just $6.3 trillion or 1.8% of the world’s wealth. From the inequality point of view, the bottom half of wealth holders collectively accounted for less than 1% of total global wealth in mid-2019, while the richest 10% own 82% of global wealth and the top 1% alone own 45%.
PRISON STATISTICS INDIA–2017
Context: The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) has released the report ‘Prison Statistics India 2017.’ Key highlights of the report
- Gujarat has the highest number of undertrial prisoners who are Pakistani nationals. The state has 59 Pakistani undertrial prisoners out of the total 101 overseas prisoners in the state. Jammu and Kashmir has the second-highest Pakistani national undertrials at 35.
- A total of 378 prisoners escaped from lawful custody during the 2017.
- The number of deaths in prisons has increased marginally from 1,584 in 2015 to 1,671 in 2017, out of which 1,494 were natural and 133 unnatural.
- Prisons Types: There are 1,361 prisons in the country consisting of 666 Sub jails, 405 District jails, 142 Central jails, 64 Open jails, 41 Special jails, 22 Woman jails, 19 Borstal School and 2 other jails.
- Prisons Occupancy: Out of the total capacity 3,91,574 in 1,361 prisons in 2017, the Central jails of the country were having the highest capacity of inmates (1,74,412) followed by the District jails (capacity of 1,53,383 inmates) and the Sub jails (capacity of 44,577 inmates). The number of prisoners lodged in various jails has increased from 4,33,003 in 2016 to 4,50,696 in 2017.
- Prisoners Types: Out of 4,50,696 prisoners, the number of Convicts, undertrial inmates and detenues accounted for 30.9 per cent 68.5 per cent and 0.5 per cent respectively. Other prisoners accounted for 0.2 per cent of total prisoners.
TechSagar is national repository of India’s cyber tech capabilities which has been launched by The National Cyber Security Coordinator’s office in partnership with Data Security Council of India (DSCI) which is a not-for-profit, industry body on data protection in India, setup by NASSCOM.
It is basically a platform to discover capabilities of the Indian Industry, academia and research across 25 technology areas like internet of things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), blockchain, cloud & virtualisation, robotics & automation, wireless & networking.
The repository currently featuring over 4,000 entities, the portal will allow targeted search, granular navigation and drilldown methods using more than 3,000 niche capabilities.
POLICE COMMEMORATION DAY
21st October every year is observed as the Police Commemoration Day to honour the loyalty and supreme sacrifice of police personnel for the nation.
The importance of the day lies on the fact that on this day in 1959 when a patrol party of 20 personnel of CRPF and Intelligence Bureau had gone to search for a missing reconnaissance party when it was ambushed by PLA (Chinese Army) in Ladakh.
In spite of the sudden attack and disadvantageous tactical position, they fought valiantly against the Chinese army personnel who were in large numbers and heavily armed. In this battle, ten CRPF men were martyred in defense of the country.
GRAND CHORD ROUTE
The most advanced Electronic Interlocking System has been installed by GRAND CHORD ROUTE Indian Railways on the Grand Chord route. The measure is taken to reduce the travel time between Delhi and Howrah to about 12 hours from the existing 17 to 19 hours.
Grand Chord is part of the Howrah-Gaya-Delhi line and Howrah-Allahabad-Mumbai line and acts as a link between Sitarampur in West Bengal and Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Junction, Uttar Pradesh, and covers a stretch of 450 kilometres falling in North Central Railway Zone.
This new Electronic system has replaced outdated 65-year old mechanical signalling system at Tundla Junction in Uttar Pradesh on the route.
Also, this interlocking system at Tundla is the 2nd largest in the country after Kharagpur Station in South Eastern Railway.