Daily Current Affairs: 10th October 2019: The Hindu+PIB
The following compilation has been made keeping in mind the need of the UPSC IAS exam. Each and every topic which has been included in this compilation is taken from very authentic and relevant source including The Hindu, The Indian Express, Business Standard, Press Information Bureau, etc.
As per the evolving pattern of the UPSC IAS prelims and mains exam each and every topic has been handpicked keeping in mind the syllabus of the exam.
World Mental Health Day
Context: 10th October is being celebrated worldwide as the ‘World Mental Health Day’ and in India by Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (DEPwD), Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment.
The 2019 theme: ’40 seconds of action : Mental Health Promotion and Suicide Prevention’ The 2018 theme: ‘Young people and mental health in a changing world’ About the day World Mental Health Day was celebrated for the first time on October 10 1992 with no specific theme apart from general promotion of mental health advocacy and educating the public. It was for the first time celebrated with an official theme, “Improving the Quality of Mental Health Services throughout the World”, in 1994. The Day is supported by World Health Organization by raising awareness on mental health issues using its strong relationships with the Ministries of health and civil society organizations across the globe. How this day holds significant to tackle suicides in India? On an estimate, in a year about 800,000 people die as a result of suicidal activities, which makes it one suicide every 40 seconds. Hence, this year’s theme is “40 seconds of action”. The objective is to raise awareness about these highly peaking numbers. There is a need for concerns in India that makes up for about the 17% of the world’s population, and also records a high number of suicidal deaths. Some of the figures are enumerated below:
- Every year, around 2.2 lakh people die by suicide in India.
- Most of these suicide deaths takes place between people of age groups 15 to 39.
- India has the highest suicide rate in South-East Asia. Around 3 to 10 people in every 1000 person have severe mental morbidity in India.
- Unfortunately, women are more prone to these suicidal deaths. According to a study, India has the 3rd highest female suicide rate (14.7%) in the world after Lesotho (24.4%) and South Korea (15.4%).
- Addressing the grim situation in India, it was found that for every 225,000 people there’s only 1 psychiatrist available. In total India, which has a population of 1.35 billion, have only 6000 registered psychiatrists.
- India had adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which are a part of the UN’s 2030 Agenda in 2015 along with other countries.
- Talking particularly about India, Maharashtra has the highest suicide rate despite being one of the most advanced states.
- Also to be noted is the grim situation of the Mental Health facilities in the country. At the time of India’s Independence, there were about 10,000 beds in different mental health institutions for a population of 400 million. Now, the population has increased many folds while the number of beds increased to roughly 21000 i.e., only 1 bed per 5000 people.
Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship (MGNF) programme
Context: Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) has signed a contract with the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Bangalore to introduce a 2-year fellowship programme Mahatma Gandhi National Fellowship (MGNF) programme.
The program has been developed under the guidance and leadership of Ministry for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. Key highlights of the Programme The Programme has been designed under Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP), which is the fellowship that aims to address the challenge of non-availability of personnel for implementation of various programmes at national, state and district levels. Specification: On-ground practical experience with the district administration will be an in-built component of the MGNF Programme. Area covered: The Programme has been launched on a pilot basis in 75 districts across Gujarat, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. Eligibility: The fellows will be deemed as eligible fellows for the programme if they are in 21-30 years age-group, possess a graduation degree from a recognized university and be citizens of India. Also, it is mandatory to have proficiency in official language of state of fieldwork. Facilities and Recognition: The eligible fellows will receive a stipend of Rs. 50,000 in the first year and Rs. 60,000 in the 2nd year along with a Certificate in Public Policy and Management from IIM Bangalore on the successful completion of their engagement. About SANKALP SANKALP is short for Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion and is a World Bank loan assisted project launched by the Government in January 2018. It aims to strengthen institutional mechanisms for skill development and increase access to quality and market-relevant training for youth across the country. A total of 4 key result areas have been identified under SANKALP, i.e.,
- Institutional Strengthening;
- Quality Assurance;
- Expanding Skills through PPPs.
Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme (PMILP)- ‘DHRUV’
Context: ‘DHRUV’ – Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme (PMILP) is planned to be launched by the M/o HRD, from ISRO Headquarters, Bangaluru. Key Highlights of the Programme
- The programme will be codified as DHRUV (named after the Pole Star) and every student enrolled in the programme is to be called as ‘DHRUV TARA’.
- Two areas to be covered under the programmed includes Science and Performing Arts.
- In all, there will be 60 students, 30 from each area, who will come from across the country.
- The students will be selected from classes 9 to 12, from all schools including government and private.
- To be expanded in future to other fields like Creative Writing, Debates, etc., this is only the first phase of the programme.
- The main objective of the Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme would be to ensure talented students to realize their full potential and contribute to society.
National Health Mission (NHM)
Context: A recent report on the Progress of the National Health Mission (NHM) has been presented to the PM Modi. The National Health Mission (NHM) encompasses its two Sub-Missions, the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM). The major programmatic components include Health System Strengthening, Reproductive-Maternal- Neonatal-Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A), and Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases.
Key Highlights of the Report
- Since the launch of the NRHM/NHM, a faster retardation has been noticed in the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), Under Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) and the IMR.
- As per the current rate of decline, India is expected to reach its SDG target (MMR-70, U5MR-25) earlier than its due year i.e. 2030.
- With respect to bringing down the Malaria cases and deaths, India has emerged as the biggest success story amongst Malaria endemic countries in the World by reducing the deaths due to Malaria by 49.09% and 50.52% in 2013 respectively as compared to 2017.
- Strengthening and further intensification of the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has been done. Around 1,180 Cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CBNAAT) machines have been installed across all districts which provides rapid and accurate diagnosis for TB including drug resistant TB.
- Due to these intensified efforts, there is 16% rise in identification of new cases in a single year.
- Universal drug sensitive cases has also increased by 54%.
- Newer drug regimen of Bedaquiline and Delaminide and a nutrition support for all the TB patients for the duration of the treatment has been rolled throughout the country.
- Tetanus and adult Diphtheria (Td) vaccine replaced Tetanus Toxoid (TT) vaccine amongst the new vaccines, under universal immunization programme in 2018 that ensure Diphtheria immunity among adults.
- Further, Measles-Rubella (MR) vaccination drive was conducted in 2018 across 17 additional States, which further covers 30.50 Crores children till March 2019.
- According to the latest updates, all the States/UTs are covered with Rotavirus vaccine (RVV).
- Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccine (PCV) was further expanded to MP, Haryana and the remaining districts of Bihar, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh during 2018-19.
- The routine and recurring incentives which are provided to ASHAs increased from 1000 per month to 2000 per month.
- A cover of Pradhan Mantri Jevan Jyoti BeemaYojna (a premium of Rs. 330 contributed by Gol) and Pradhan Mantri Suraksha BeemaYojna (a premium of Rs.12 contributed by Gol) was provided to ASHAs and ASHA Facilitators.
- In April 2018, Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) Abhiyaan was launched under POSHAN Abhiyaan.
- There has been an increment in the untied funds amount from Rs, 20,000 to Rs 50,000 for sub health Centres transformed to HWCs.
- Also, the Home Based Care for Young Child (HBYC) programme was introduced under POSHAN Abhiyaan.
- The scheme was approved for awarding States/UTs/Districts for achieving disease free status in TB/Leprosy/Malaria/Kala-Azar/Lymphatic-Filariasis/Cataract.
- Also, approval was given to the National Viral Hepatitis Control Programme that aided in the prevention, management and treatment of Hepatitis A, B, C and E.
WHO India Country Cooperation Strategy 2019–2023
Context: ‘The WHO India Country Cooperation Strategy 2019–2023: A Time of Transition’ has been launched by the Union Minister for Health & Family Welfare Dr Harsh Vardhan. This Country Cooperation Strategy (CCS) will provide a strategic roadmap for World Health Organization (WHO) to work with the Government of India (GoI) towards achieving its health sector goals, to improve the health of its population and to bring in transformative changes in the health sector.
The four major areas that has been identified for strategic cooperation of WHO with the country includes:
- To accelerate progress on UHC;
- To promote health and wellness by addressing determinants of health;
- To protect the population better against health emergencies;
- To enhance India’s global leadership in health.
The India Country Cooperation Strategy (CCS) is one of the first cooperation initiative that fully aligns itself with the newly adopted WHO 13th General Programme of Work and its ‘triple billion‘ targets, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and WHO South-East Asia Region’s eight Flagship Priorities. The strategy also captures the work of the United Nations Sustainable Development Framework for 2018–2022 and tells how WHO can support the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare and other allied Ministries to drive impact at the country level. The strategy document is built on other key strategic policy documents including India’s National Health Policy 2017, along with other initiatives introduced by India — from Ayushman Bharat to its National Viral Hepatitis programme amongst others.
Context: Government of India has recently launched the Gagan Enabled Mariner’s Instrument for Navigation and Information (GEMINI) device. What is it? ‘GEMINI’, short for Gagan Enabled Mariner’s Instrument for Navigation and Information, is a device that aid in dissemination of emergency information and communication on disaster warnings, Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ) and Ocean States Forecasts (OSF) to the fishermen. How fishing in currently operated? As of now, the PFZ Advisories currently in operation provides information on the probable locations on fish aggregation in the seas, and the OSF provide the accurate state of the ocean which include the forecasts on winds, waves, ocean currents, water temperature, etc. at every 6 hrs on daily basis for next 5 days that helps fishermen in maximizing their earnings along with ensuring them safety in planning of fishing activities. What are the limitations of the current procedures? In spite of dissemination of communication by the advisories and forecasts through multiple communication modes, none of these is able to provide such information, including the disaster warnings when the fishermen move away from the coast beyond 10-12 km (typical ranges of mobile phones and VHF). This has so far remained a major limitation in dissemination of information to fishermen who go in the sea beyond 50 nautical miles; sometimes up to 300 nautical miles and beyond for multi-day fishing. This communication gap was severely felt during the Ockhi cyclone in 2017, when fishermen went out, for deep sea fishing before the onset of the cyclone and could not be informed about the developing cyclone resulting in loss of life, serious injuries to those rescued and severe damages to fishing boats and fishing gears. How this new device fills this communication gap? This device makes use of the GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation) satellite system, which consists of three geosynchronous satellites (GSAT-8, GSAT-10 and GSAT-15) and whose foot-print covers the entire Indian Ocean round the clock, to overcome this difficulty. Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), an autonomous body under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) joined hands with Airports Authority of India (AAI) to utilize the GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation) satellite system in order to transmit the PFZ, OSF and disaster warnings to fishermen.
In order to receive the messages that are transmitted through the GAGAN satellites, INCOIS together with AAI developed this low-cost GAGAN system-enabled GEMINI (GAGAN Enabled Mariner’s Instrument for Navigation and Information) device, which is electronically designed and manufactured by a private industry M/S Acord, Bangalore under Make in India Program. This GEMINI device receives and transfers the data received from GAGAN satellite/s to a mobile through Bluetooth communication. A mobile application developed by INCOIS decodes and displays the information in 9 different regional languages.
2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
The 2019 edition of Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to an American physicist, a British-American chemist and a Japanese chemist “for the development of lithium-ion batteries”
The awardees includes:
- John B Goodenough from the University of Texas at Austin at United States.
- M Stanley Whittingham from Binghamton University, State University of New York in the United States.
- Akira Yoshino from Asahi Kasei Corporation, Tokyo, Japan och Meijo University, Nagoya in Japan.
John B Goodenough, who is 97 years old, is the oldest-ever to win the prestigious prize.
Sudden Stratospheric Warming
An typically abnormal warming event over the Antarctica that has raised the temperatures in the South Pole by more than 40 degrees Celsius which is driving record-breaking warm temperatures in Australia.
This abnormal behaviour is a very rare phenomenon, which is known as sudden stratospheric warming, that occurs when rapid warming begins high up in the stratosphere (the second major layer of Earth’s atmosphere). How this event takes place? These events generally start towards the end of winters, during a time when mountains or the contrast between warm ocean temperatures and cold land masses generate continental-scale atmospheric disturbances known as Rossby waves. When these waves are large enough, they can reach into the stratosphere and break like a wave over a beach, that compresses and warms the air in the stratosphere above the pole. It is to be noted that, while the sudden stratospheric warming is a common phenomenon in Northern Hemisphere associated with cold weather where it occurs every second year on average, it is a rarity in the southern hemisphere. What are its implications? These events can trigger hot, dry winds all over Australia over the next 3 months and can have major impact on rainfall that can trigger droughts in the continent.
Who is a ‘JURISTIC PERSON’?
A juristic person, unlike a ‘natural person’ is an entity whom the law vests with a personality. Or, in simple words, it is not an individual natural person but an artificially created person which is to be recognized to be in law as such. For example: Gods, Corporations, Rivers and Animals, these all have been treated as juristic persons by the courts. Cases when this happens In May 2019, the Punjab and Haryana High Court held that the ‘entire animal kingdom’ has a “distinct legal persona with corresponding rights, duties, and liabilities of a living person”. Also, in March 2017, Uttarakhand HC declared Ganga and Yamuna as the ‘living people’. However, the order was stayed by the SC in July 2017 as it raised a number of legal and administrative issues. What about Hinduism? While God as an abstract person is not a juristic entity, installed deities at Hindu place of worships have been treated like other real persons for the purpose of law. But, every deity is not a legal person. The status of a legal person is only given to an idol after its public consecration is done that too specifically for the general public. Is it the same in other religions? A mosque has never been held as a juristic person, because it is a place where people gather to worship and not the object of worship itself. Same is the case with the Church.