Daily Current Affairs: 30th September 2019: The Hindu+PIB
The following compilation has been made keeping in mind the need of the UPSC IAS exam. Each and every topic which has been included in this compilation is taken from very authentic and relevant source including The Hindu, The Indian Express, Business Standard, Press Information Bureau, etc.
As per the evolving pattern of the UPSC IAS prelims and mains exam each and every topic has been handpicked keeping in mind the syllabus of the exam.
Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test (DMIT)
Context: Doctors in India have put up questions on the effectiveness of DMIT by referring it as a ‘Medical Palmistry’.
What is Dermatoglyphics and Multiple Intelligence Test? It is an analysis of the fingerprint patterns, lines, mounts and shapes of hands. It is also also referred to as the making of naturally occurring ridges on various body parts, namely palms, fingers, soles, and toes i.e., those parts and areas where hair usually does not grow, and these ridges allow for increased leverage when picking up objects or walking barefoot. Multiple Intelligence Test is a scientific Method of understanding Brain Lobes and its usages. What is the use of this test? In all, DMIT is a combined scientific study of Brain Lobes with the help of fingerprints. This Test helps in understanding a great individual’s potential & personality Type. It is based on understanding from Neuroscience, Genetics, Dermatoglyphics, Psychology and Embryology. How fingerprints are connected with the Brain Lobes? Firstly, an analysis of Brain Lobes can be done depending on formation and amount of ridge present in the finger prints. Secondly, it was confirmed by the medical experts that each person’s finger prints are unique and demonstrate different types of characteristics, even identical twin babies also. Thirdly, the syndication of fingerprints is recognized as represent of human brain cells. Fourthly, the development of fingerprint depends upon the proportion & distribution of brain lobes. This is due to these relations, children with learning difficulties will vary fingerprints in comparison to the fingerprints of the talented children.
Context: A sub-committee has been constituted by the Government of Meghalaya which has decided to recommend the Standing Committee of Parliament for the removal of the word “unrepresented tribes” from the amendment which has been proposed to the Sixth Schedule to the Indian Constitution. Key points to remember Indian State of Meghalaya is divided into autonomous councils in the name of 3 major matrilineal communities i.e., Garo, Khasi and Jaintia. The minority tribes of the State includes Hajong, Koch, Rabha, Baro and Mann. Currently, members of such “unrepresented tribes” are nominated to the autonomous district councils. Parts of whole of the four northeastern states i.e., Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Tripura which falls under the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution makes special provision for the ‘Tribal areas’ What about Sixth Schedule of Indian Constitution? Article 244(2) and 275(1) of the Indian Constitution covers the Sixth Schedule. It has the provisions related to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. This Schedule of Indian Constitution provides for the setting up of Autonomous District Councils (ADCs) in order to have an efficient administration in these tribal areas. For a matter of fact, the term of the District Councils is for 5 years from the date of their constitution and is governed by an Executive Committee. Given below is a list of Autonomous Councils as given in the Sixth Schedule:
- ASSAM: Bodoland Territorial Council; Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council; North Cachar Hills Autonomous District Council; Deori Autonomous Council; Mising Autonomous Council; Rabha Hasong Autonomous Council; Sonowal Kachari Autonomous Council; Thengal Kachari Autonomous Council; Tiwa Autonomous Council.
- MEGHALAYA: Garo Hills Autonomous District Council; Jaintia Hills Autonomous District Council; Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council.
- TRIPURA: Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council.
- MIZORAM: Chakma Autonomous District Council; Lai Autonomous District Council; Mara Autonomous District Council.
Apart from the above autonomous councils of the Northeastern regions, there are other autonomous regions of India also. These are:
- MANIPUR: Sadar Hills Autonomous District Council; Chandel Autonomous District Council; Churachandpur Autonomous District Council; Senapati Autonomous District Council; Tamenglong Autonomous District Council; Ukhrul Autonomous District Council.
- LADAKH: Kargil and Leh Autonomous Hill Development Council.
- WEST BENGAL: Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (semi-autonomous).
- ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS: North Sentinel Island.
INTERDISCIPLINARY CYBER PHYSICAL SYSTEMS (ICPS)
Context: A new programmed “Interdisciplinary Cyber Physical Systems (ICPS)” has been recently launched by the Department of Science & Technology (DST).
What is a Cyber Physical System? It is a mechanism which is controlled by the Computer-based Algorithms and is effectively integrated with the internet and its userbase. It is an engineered system that are build from and depend upon, the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components. In other words, Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) comes into existence when the computing and communication systems bridges with the physical world. What are the key objectives of CPS programme? The major objective of the adoption of CPS is to address the India specific issues related to cyber world. It also looks into the acceleration of the entrepreneurship and start-up ecosystem developments. What is the Strategy involved? The Mission aims at establishment of 15 Technology Innovation Hub (TIH), 6 Applicaiton Innovation Hub (AIH), and 4 Technology Translation Research Parks (TTRP). All of these TTRPs and Hubs would connect to Academics, Central Ministries, Industry and State Government in creating solutions at reputed academic, R&D and other organizations across the country in a hub and spoke model. The major focus ares for these hubs and TTRPs are:
- Technology development
- HRD & Skill Development
- Innovation, Entrepreneurship & Start-ups Ecosystem Development
- International Collaborations
What are the other facts to keep in mind?
The responsibility of the implementation of the programme lies with the Department of Science and Technology (DST) for a period of 5 years.
Further, ICPS is a Pan India programme that covers the entire Central Ministries, Academia and the Industries.
NATIONAL NUTRITIONAL SURVEY
Context: The Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and UNICEF between February 2016 and October 2018 has recently submitted its report.
This is the first-ever national nutrition survey, yet to be made public, providing for the first time hard evidence of the coexistence of obesity and under-nutrition, among school going children.
This is the first study that has been carried out inorder to measure malnutrition, along with micronutrient deficiencies through measures such as blood and urine samples, anthropometric data as well as details of NCDs such as diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol and kidney function in children and adolescents.
These samples were collected for children in the age group of 1-5 years and adults, but not for school going children between the age of 5 and 19 years.
- The survey found that around 1/4th of those aged between 5-9 and 10-19 year were thin for their age, one in five children 5-9 years’ old were stunted.
- A total of 1.12 lakh children and adolescents (0-19 years) were surveyed for height and weight measurements and 51,029 children (1-19 years) for biological samples.
- Around 10% childrensand adolescents are pre-biotic.
- About 4% adolescents are suffering from high cholestrol levels.
- Around 7% children and adolescents suffers from risk of chronic kidney diseases.
- Approximately 5% of the adolescents were found to be suffering from high Blood pressure.
- The survey also noted that Tamil Nadu and Goa has the highest number of adolescents between age group of 10-19 years who are either over-weight or obese. Goa has the most number of obese adolescents.
Impact of Food insecurity on children’s learning : Study
Context: Recently, an international team from U.K. and India analysed the data collected by Young Lives (a UK- and India-based research study of over 1,900 school children in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana).
Key Highlights of the research
According to the new research, with the introduction schemes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and the mid-day meal scheme, there has been an increase in the number of children enrolling in schools but on the other hand Indian children are not able to perform well in their studies due to widespread food insecurity at home. The research examined how the experience of food insecurity at home at ages 5, 8 and 12 years affected children’s performance in studying maths, reading the local language, vocabulary skills and English ability in adolescence (12 years old). The study highlighted that the link between food insecurity at home and learning was more pronounced for those who experienced chronic food insecurity and/or for those who experienced it during early childhood (at 5 years). What could be the possible impact of this on Indian Economy? According to the researchers, the experience of food insecurity at home during childhood can affect India’s economy through lower human capital accumulation. The study further highlighted that there are plenty of economic studies that pointed out the fact that the countries which have a better-educated work-forces are more capable of innovating and grow at a faster pace than countries with lower human capital stock. In other words, if children from food-insecure households tend to learn less at school, a country is clearly not reaching its potential in terms of human capital, and thus its economic performance is hampered.
Context: The 74th session of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) which was in process since September 24 at the UN headquarters in New York is about to conclude on September 30, 2019.
Key points you need to know about UNGA
It is also known as the parliament of the world, across the globe and have the representation of all the 193 UN member states. UNGA is the deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN. Among the world’s 196 countries, 3 nations- Palestine, the Vatican City and Taiwan are not a part of the international organization as their country status is not recognized globally due to political and religious reasons. The UN General assembly takes place annually at the headquarters of the United Nations in New York, US. UNGA along with UN Security Council is two of the six prominent organs of the UN. UNGA performs the following key functions:
- It has the responsibility of taking decision on important matters such as peace and security, discusses various global issues and budgetary matters.
- It has the role in deciding on matters such as the admission of new members.
- In UNGA, decisions are always taken through a vote. The admission of new members and budgetary matters require a 2/3rd majority, while the decision on other issues are taken by a simple majority.
- Except for the budgetary matters, the votes are not binding on the membership. In all, each sovereign state gets one vote.
- There is no no binding votes or veto powers in UNGA like the UN Security Council.
- The UNGA has the power to elect the Security Council’s non-permanent members and can express world opinion, promote international cooperation in various fields and make recommendations to the UNSC.
Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)
Context: Using NASA’s TESS, scientists have captured a view of a colossal black hole violently ripping apart a doomed star, illustrating a extraordinary and chaotic cosmic event from beginning to end for the first time.
TESS, revealed the detailed timeline of a star 375 million light-years away warping and spiralling into the unrelenting gravitational pull of a super-massive black hole.
The star, roughly the same size as the sun, was eventually sucked into oblivion in a rare cosmic occurrence that astronomers call a tidal disruption event. How all this happened? Such a phenomena takes place when a star ventures too close to a super-massive black hole (objects that reside at the centre of most large galaxies including our Milky Way). The tremendous gravitational forces of black hole tear the star to atoms, with some of its material tossed into space and the rest sucked into the black hole, forming a disk of hot, bright gas as it is swallowed. About TESS The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) was launched on April 18, 2018, aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. It is the another important step in the search for planets outside of our solar system, including those that could support life. The mission would find exoplanets that periodically block part of the light from their host stars, events called transits. It will survey 200,000 of the brightest stars near the sun to search for transiting exoplanets. Among the thousands of exoplanets expected to be discovered with the help of TESS, approximately 300 are expected to be Earth-sized and super-Earth-sized exoplanets, which are worlds no larger than twice the size of Earth. Approach of TESS: The stars that TESS will study are 30 to 100 times brighter than those the Kepler mission and K2 follow-up surveyed, which will allow for far easier follow-up observations with both ground-based and space-based telescopes. It will also cover a sky area which is 400 times larger than that monitored by Kepler. Besides its search for exoplanets, through its Guest Investigator program, TESS will enable scientists from the wider community to request targets for astrophysics research on approximately 20,000 additional objects during the mission. TESS team partners includes:
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research
- NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center
- MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory
- Orbital ATK
- NASA’s Ames Research Center
- Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
- Space Telescope Science Institute
GALO COMMUNITY Galo ethnic group in Arunachal Pradesh, as a major achievement, can now tell that who started their clan for the first time in their history. With a population of about 1.5 lakh people, the Galos are among of the 26 major communities of Arunachal Pradesh, and dominate West Siang, Lepa Rada and Lower Siang districts. They also have a considerable population in East Siang, Upper Subansiri and Namsai districts. Mar Abimalek Timotheus He is the former Metropolitan of Malabar and India (1878-1945) and has been officially proclaimed as saint by Catholicos Patriarch Maran Mar Gewargis III Sliwa. He had established the Mar Narsai Press, which became the main church printing press in English, Spain, and Malayalam. The press is still functioning and will be celebrating its centenary celebrations in 2026. He had supported the freedom movement and Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi as well as Kamla Nehru had visited him following the directives of Mahatma Gandhi.
PRESIDENT’S COLOURS AWARD
President’s Colours Awards has recently being presented by the President of India Ram Nath Kovind to the Corps of Army Air Defence at Odisha’s Gopalpur military station.
- President’s Colours is the highest honour which is bestowed upon a regiment of the Indian Armed Forces to recognize their invaluable contributions to the security of the nation during peace and hostility.
- Recently, it has been received by the Army Air Defence Centre on behalf of the Corps of Army Air Defence.
- It was presented on the completion of 25 years of the Army Air Defence as an independent arm of the Army.
- Air Defence Corps came into existence in 1940 as the youngest corps of army as part of Corps of Artillery but was later bifurcated from the Regiment of Artillery in 1994 and established the Army Air Defence College.
- The troops from this Centre had shown valour during World War II in multiple operations and had won gallantry awards, namely:
- 4 Military Crosses,
- 1 Medal of the British Empire,
- 7 Indian Distinguished Service Medals,
- 2 Orders of the British Empire.