CHANDRAYAAN 2 : INDIA’S LUNAR MISSION
The second moon mission of India, the Chandrayaan-2 has been precisely inserted in defined orbit. It reached in the orbit at 09.02 am on 20th August 2019.
ISRO is aiming for successful landing at 1.55 AM on 7th September. The soft landing will be near lunar South Pole. The next major event will be on 2nd September when the lander will be separated from the orbiter. Chandrayaan-2 will undergo four more manoeuvres. The first manoeuvre will be today, followed by subsequent manoeuvres on 28th August, 30th August and 1st September. About the Mission This is ISRO’s second moon mission after Chandrayaan-1 in the year 2008. Chandrayaan-2 was launched from Sriharikota on 22nd July this year. It carries an orbiter, ‘Vikram’ lander and ‘Pragyan’ rover.
For know the complete details of the mission please read : CHANDRAYAAN-2 : INDIA’S FIRST MISSION TO EXPLORE THE DARK SIDE OF MOON
MOBILE METALLIC RAMP
- DRDO handed over the design of Mobile Metallic Ramp (MMR) to the Indian Army.
- MMR has been designed and developed by DRDO’s premier research laboratory, Centre for Fire, Explosive and Environment Safety (CFEES), with a load bearing capacity of 70 metric ton (MT), on the requirements projected by Army for reducing the Strategic Mobility time of mobilizing Armoured Fighting Vehicles.
How is it beneficial ? The ramp will provide the strategic mobility for Armoured and Mechanized units and formations of the Army. It is portable, modular in design, which can be easily assembled or disassembled.
International Court of Justice
Context : Pakistan is keen to take the Kashmir dispute with India to International Court of Justice (ICJ), after New Delhi revoked special status for its portion of the region earlier this month.
What is International Court of Justice?
- The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the United Nations’ principal judicial organ. It was in June 1945 when it was established by the Charter of the United Nations and began work in April 1946.
- The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands).
- It is to be noted that out of the 6 principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in New York (United States of America).
- Its major role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
Composition & Tenure Of Judges in the Court
- The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of 9 years by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) and the Security Council (UNSC).
- It is assisted by a Registry, its administrative organ.
- Its official languages are English and French.
READ MORE : INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
DARK WEB : THE EMERGING DANGER TO PRIVACY
Context: The Supreme Court stressed the need to find a balance between the right to online privacy and the right of the State to detect people who use the web to spread panic and commit crimes.
The SC’s comments were in response to submissions made about need to link the social media profiles of registered users with their Aadhaar numbers, and if required, have platforms such as Facebook and WhatsApp to share the 12-digit unique identity with law enforcement agencies to help detect crimes.
What is dark web?
The dark web is a component of the deep web that does not appear through regular internet browsing activities. It is also known as the ‘dark net’ and it refers to encrypted online content that is not indexed by conventional search engines.
How it works?
The dark web has become an online marketplace for illegal goods. It attracts users who seek anonymity when conducting business. It is not that it is always used for illegal purposes, the intentions can be noble, such as with journalists seeking to interview citizens of repressive countries, where communications are monitored. Contrarily, the anonymity of the dark web attracts criminal actors like drug-dealers, hackers, and child pornography peddlers. There is also a growing service economy within the dark web in which hitmen and other illegal operatives advertise their services in ways which are not possible on traditional channels.
TASK FORCE FOR DRAFTING NEW DIRECT TAX LEGISLATION
The ‘Task Force for drafting a New Direct Tax Legislation’ submitted its report and a draft of the new proposed version of the Income-tax law.
About the Task Force
- It was constituted in November 2017.
- Akhilesh Ranjan, Member (Legislation), CBDT was the convener of the task force.
- The Direct Tax Code will replace the Income Tax Act, which was enacted in 1961.
- Key Recommendations includes :
- In the four slabs of personal income tax currently, the panel has suggested a rise in rates between 5% and 20%.
- As of now, for tax payers below 60 years of age, there is nil tax on income up to Rs. 2.5 lakh, 5% tax rate for income between Rs. 2.5-5 lakh, 20% tax rate for income between Rs 5-10 lakh and 30% tax rate for income above Rs 10 lakh.
- Suggestions has also been made on reducing compliance burden by simplification of procedures, and litigation management.
NATIONAL MARITIME DOMAIN AWARENESS (NMDA) PROJECT
Context: Defence Minister recently visited the Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC) and Information Fusion Centre – Indian Ocean Region (IFC-IOR) located at Gurugram. The two centres are under the NMDA project.
The IMAC monitors the movement of more than 120,000 ships a year passing through the Indian Ocean. It collects shipping info. analysing traffic patterns and sharing the inputs with the user agencies. IFC-IOR is a collaborative effort by the Indian Navy in coordination with partner nations and multi-national maritime agencies to enhance Maritime Domain Awareness and Maritime Security. The Centre is likely to host International Liaison Officers from the partner nations in the near future.
- The NMDA project was launched in accordance with the PM Modi’s vision on Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR).
- National Maritime Authority (NMA) of India was set up to ensure cohesive policy-making and effective coordination on coastal security among the multiple authorities dealing with maritime issues in the country.
- The 15 or more agencies involved, ranging from Navy, Coast Guard, customs, intelligence agencies and port authorities to the home and shipping ministries, state governments and fisheries departments, often work at cross-purposes.
- Other countries which have the same facilities are US, the Philippines, EU, Canada, South Africa including India as well.
ONE NATION ONE RATION CARD SCHEME
Context : Odhisha Government is set to implement the Centre’s ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ Scheme. The Scheme was launched by the Union Minister of Food recently and all states needs to implement it by July 2020.
About the Scheme
- ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ scheme seeks to provide benefits of food security across the nation.
- Under the Scheme, the poor migrant workers will be able to buy subsidised rice and wheat from any ration shop in the country but for that linkage of ration card with the Aadhar Card is a must.
- As per the Scheme guidelines, the migrants would only be eligible for the subsidies supported by the Centre, which include rice sold at Rs. 3/kg and wheat at Rs. 2/kg, it would not include subsidies that are given by their respective state government in another state.
- It is ensured under the scheme that no poor person is deprived of subsidised grains.
- The scheme can be implemented as already 77% of the ration shops across the country have PoS machines available with them and over 85% of people covered under the National Food Security Act (NFSA) have their cards linked to Aadhaar.
- For the remaining beneficiaries, all the States have been given one more year to use point of sale (PoS) machines in the ration shops and implement the scheme.
- Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte resigns from the office.
- The Okjokull glacier, Iceland is the first Icelandic glacier to lose its status as glacier.
- It was officially declared dead in 2014 at the age of 700 years by the Icelandic Meteorological Office when it was no longer thick enough to move.
- What once was a glacier has been reduced to a small patch of ice atop a volcano.
- Iceland loses about 11 billion tonnes of ice per year and the scientists fear that all of the island country’s 400-plus glaciers will be gone by the end of 2200.
- A study of India’s population growth keeping in view the Independence Day Speech.
- US and TURKEY are planning to establish a “safe area“ in the northern Syria for the refugees who are fleeing the conflict in the war-torn country.