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CURRENT AFFAIRSTHE HINDU : AUGUST 2019

Daily Current Affairs : 10th August 2019 : The Hindu News Analysis



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WORLD BIOFUEL DAY

World Biofuel Day is observed every year on 10th of August to create awareness about the importance of non-fossil fuels as an alternative to conventional fossil fuels and highlight the various efforts made by Government in the bio-fuel sector.

THEME 2019 “Production of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil (UCO)”.

On this occasion, a sticker on RUCO viz., Repurpose Used Cooking Oil and 'a mobile app' to facilitate the collection of UCO is also released by FSSAI.



Importance of Biofuels 

They have the benefits of reduction of import dependence, cleaner environment, additional income to farmers and employment generation.  Biofuel programme also compliments Government of India’s initiatives for Make in India, Swachh Bharat and increasing farmers income.

Present Status in India

At present, approximately 850 crore litres of High Speed Diesel (HSD) is consumed on a monthly basis in India.

The National Policy on Biofuels - 2018 envisages a target of 5% blending of Biodiesel in HSD by 2030. In order to achieve the blending target, 500 crore litres of Biodiesel is required in a year.

In India, approximately, 22.7 MMTPA (2700 crore litres) of Cooking Oil is used out of which 1.2 MMTPA (140 Crore) UCO can be collected from Bulk Consumers such as hotels, restaurants, canteens, etc. for conversion, which will give approximately 110 crore litres of Biodiesel in one year.

Presently there is no established collection chain for UCO. Thus, there is a huge opportunity in production of biodiesel from UCO.

In India, the same cooking oil is used for repeated frying which adversely affects the health due to formation of 'polar compounds' during frying.

These polar compounds are associated with diseases such as  hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, liver diseases among others.

UCO is either not discarded at all or disposed off in an environmentally hazardous manner choking drains and sewerage systems.

PM KISAN MAN DHAN YOJANA

Registration opens up for PM Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana; Union Agriculture Minister urges farmers to register for the Pension Scheme.



Appealing farmers across the country to join the old age pension Scheme, the scheme has been envisioned with an aim to improve the life of small and marginal farmers of the country. 

About the Scheme
  • The scheme is voluntary and contributory for farmers in the entry age group of 18 to 40 years.
  • A monthly pension of Rs. 3000/- will be provided to them on attaining the age of 60 years.
  • The farmers will have to make a monthly contribution of Rs.55 to Rs.200, depending on their age of entry, in the Pension Fund till they reach the retirement date i.e. the age of 60 years. 
  • The Central Government will also make an equal contribution of the same amount in the pension fund. 
  • The spouse is also eligible to get a separate pension of Rs.3000/- upon making separate contributions to the Fund.
  • The Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) shall be the Pension Fund Manager and responsible for Pension pay out.
  • In case of death of the farmer before retirement date, the spouse may continue in the scheme by paying the remaining contributions till the remaining age of the deceased farmer.
  • If the spouse does not wish to continue, the total contribution made by the farmer along with interest will be paid to the spouse.
  • If there is no spouse, then total contribution along with interest will be paid to the nominee.
  • If the farmer dies after the retirement date, the spouse will receive 50% of the pension as Family Pension.
  • After the death of both the farmer and the spouse, the accumulated corpus shall be credited back to the Pension Fund. 
  • The beneficiaries may opt voluntarily to exit the Scheme after a minimum period of 5 years of regular contributions. On exit, their entire contribution shall be returned by LIC with an interest equivalent to prevailing saving bank rates.
  • The farmers, who are also beneficiaries of PM-Kisan Scheme, will have the option to allow their contribution debited from the benefit of that Scheme directly. 
  • In case of default in making regular contributions, the beneficiaries are allowed to regularize the contributions by paying the outstanding dues along with prescribed interest.
  • The initial enrollment to the Scheme is being done through the Common Service Centres in various states. Later on alternative facility of enrollment through the PM-Kisan State Nodal Officers or by any other means or online enrollment will also be made available. 
  • The enrollment is free of cost. The Common Service Centres will charge Rs.30/- per enrolment which will be borne by the Government.
  • There will be appropriate grievance redressal mechanism of LIC, banks and the Government. An Empowered Committee of Secretaries has also been constituted for monitoring, review and amendments of the Scheme.



ROTAVIRUS VACCINE

The Health Ministry has drawn an ambitious plan under the 100-days agenda of the newly elected government, wherein it has been decided to provide Rotavirus vaccine to every child across all 36 states and UTs by September, 2019.

Status in India

In India, every year 37 out of every 1000 children born are unable to celebrate their 5th birthday, and one of the major reasons for this is diarrheal deaths.

Out of all the causes of diarrhoea, rotavirus is a leading cause of diarrhoea in children less than 5 years of age.

It is estimated that rotavirus cause 8,72,000 hospitalizations; 32,70,000 outpatient visits and estimated 78,000 deaths annually in India. 

Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2016 in a phased manner, beginning with 4 states initially and later expanded to 7 more states making it a total of 11 states by end of 2018, where Rotavirus vaccine was available in the country.

At present the vaccine has been further expanded to 17 more states till now. Rotavirus vaccine is now available in 28 States/UTs. These includes : Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Assam, Tripura, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Manipur, Daman & Diu, Gujarat, Bihar, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Goa, Chandigarh, Nagaland, Delhi, Mizoram, Punjab, Uttarakhand, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

About Rotavirus

Rotavirus is caused by a virus, and it mostly affects babies and young children. It spreads when a person comes in contact with the poop of someone who has rotavirus and then touches their own mouth. 

If a child is exposed to rotavirus, symptoms won't show up for about 2 days.

It usually starts with a fever, vomiting, and stomach pain, which fades just as diarrhea begins. As the virus works its way through your child's system, the diarrhea can hang on for 5 to 7 days.

WHO continues to recommend that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine be administered as soon as possible after 6 weeks of age, along with DTP vaccination.

66th NATIONAL AWARDS 

  • Best Feature Film Award : Gujarati film 'Hellaro'.
  • Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment : 'Badhaai Ho'.
  • Best Film on Social Issues : 'Padman'.
  • Best DirectorAditya Dhar (Uri: The Surgical Strike)
  • Best Actor Award : Ayushman Khurana (Andhadhundh) and Vicky Kaushal (Uri : The Surgical Strike).

  • Best Actress Keerthy Suresh (Telugu movie 'Mahanati').
  • Best Film on Environment Conservation/ PreservationMarathi movie 'Paani'.
  • Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National IntegrationKannada film 'Ondalla Eradalla'.
  • Most Film Friendly State : 'State of Uttarakhand'.

Gandhi Albums to be presented to President of India on the occasion of Quit India Movement

The book narrates the pictorial story of the life and times of Mahatma Gandhi through 550 photographs. It has been brought out by the Publications Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting.

For the first time, the Hindi version of the book has been brought out in order to cater to further the outreach and cater to a wider reader base.

The English version of the book was first brought out in 1954, taking photographs from the Sarvodaya Diwas Pradarshni organised at Rajghat in January 1949 to mark the first anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi’s death.

ABOUT QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT

Also known as the August Movement, it was launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India.


In 1992 Reserve Bank of India issued a 1 rupee commemorative coin to mark the Golden Jubilee of the Quit India Movement.

WHICH COUNTRY HAS MOST NUMBER OF LANGUAGES ?

2019 is being declared the UN's Year of Indigenous languages
Key facts involved :
  • Papua New Guinea, the Pacific island nation, has the highest number of 'living' indigenous languages in the world (840).
  • India stands at 4th position with 453 languages.
  • Ethnologue, which is a directory of languages, lists 7,111 living languages worldwide (languages that are still being used and spoken by people).
  • Chinese, Spanish, English, Hindi and Arabic are the most widely spoken languages worldwide when only first-languages are considered. These five account for what is spoken by over 40% of people worldwide.
  • U.S. (335 languages) and Australia (319), widely English-speaking nations, are among the countries where the highest number of languages are spoken.
  • According to Ethnologue, there are 3,741 languages (over half the total) which have fewer than 1,000 speakers.


According to UNESCO's 'Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger', 228 languages have become extinct since 1950.

About 10% of the languages are classified 'vulnerable', while another 10% are 'critically endangered'.

In India, five languages have become extinct since 1950, while 42 are critically endangered.



QUICK FEEDS

  • Union Home Minister to release Vice President’s book on two years in office.
    • The book contains Shri Naidu’s important diplomatic engagements including his visits to 19 countries in 4 continents
    • He was the first Indian Vice President to visit Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Malta.
  • KVIC distributes 50 leather kits, 350 bee-boxes on world Tribal day in Rajasthan.
    • Every year, August 9 is celebrated as the International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples or World Tribal Day.
    • The date recognizes the first meeting of the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations in Geneva in 1982.
    • THEME 2019 : ‘Indigenous Languages’ and will focus on the current situation of indigenous languages around the world.
  • First ecotoxicology diagnostic centre at AIIMS.
    • Ecotoxicology is the study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms, especially at the population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere levels. It is a multidisciplinary field, which integrates toxicology and ecology.
  • President gives its assent to Unlawful Activities Prevention (Amendment) Act, 2019.
  • A push for peace in Afghanistan



Also Read : 9th August 2019 current affairs, 8th August 2019 current affairs

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