BUDGET 2020

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CURRENT AFFAIRSTHE HINDU : JULY 2019

DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS : 27th July 2019 : The Hindu New Analysis

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UNLAWFUL ACTIVITIES PREVENTION ACT (AMENDMENT) BILL : Prevention of its Misuse

Once the Bill is passed and the Act is amended, the first one to be designated as a terrorist under the Act on a priority basis would be Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammad’s Masood Azhar and Lashkar-e-Taiba chief Hafiz Saeed.

Some facts about the Act to be remembered :


  • The proposal to designate an individual a terrorist will come from the security agencies.
  • The information would then be collaborated through multiple agencies.
  • The Home Ministry would examine the proposal. Once convinced, the proposal would be signed by the Home Minister.
  • The individual can file an appeal with the Ministry.
  • The Ministry will have to decide on the appeal within a period of 45 days.
  • The individual can also file an appeal before an independent committee.
  • The UAPA, first framed in 1967, was amended thrice in 2004, 2008 and 2013.

To know more about UAPA Act and its details, Click Here



THE ANCIENT MONUMENTS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AND
REMAINS (AMENDMENT AND VALIDATION) ACT, 2010

Context : Construction near Purana Qila,  Khairul Manazil mosque and Sher Shah Gate in the Capital will now be regulated by heritage by-laws.
PURANA QILA
The set of by-laws— one for Purana Qila and one for Khairul Manazil and Sher Shah Gate — took the total number of heritage by-laws drafted under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2010 in the country to five.


KHAIRUL MANAZIL MOSQUE

While no construction activity is allowed in a 100 metre radius of protected monuments, building work starting from 100 metres till 300 metres from such heritage structures are regulated by by-laws.


SHER SHAH SURI GATE

Also, according to the bylaws, the height of buildings would be restricted to 7.5 metres.

What do you need to know about the Act?

It is an Act further to amend the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958.

Key provisions of the Act :



  • Definition of Construction 
    • Any erection of a structure or a building, including any extension thereto either vertically or horizontally, but does not include any reconstruction, repair and renovation of an existing structure or building, or, 
    • Construction, maintenance and cleansing of drains and drainage works and of public latrines, urinals and similar conveniences, or, the construction and maintenance of works meant for providing supply of water for public, or, 
    • Construction or maintenance, extension, management for supply and distribution of electricity to the public or provision for similar facilities for public;
  • The Central Government shall, on the recommendation of the Authority, prescribe categories in respect of ancient monuments or archaeological sites and remains declared as of national importance and  classify all the ancient monuments or archaeological sites and remains declared as of national importance.
  • Declaration of Protected Monuments
    • Every area, beginning at the limit of the protected area or the protected monument, as the case may be, and extending to a distance of one hundred meters in all directions shall be the prohibited area in respect of such protected area or protected monument
  • National Monuments Authority (NMA) to be constituted under the Act which will be the highest body to look forward the functions under the Act, particularly consideration of NOC applications.
  • Composition of NMA
    • A Chairperson, appointed by the President on whole-time basis and who have proven experience and expertise in the fields of archaeology, country and town planning, architecture, heritage, conservation-architecture or law.
    • A group of not more than 10 members (not exceeding 5 whole-time members and 5 part-time members) to be approved by the Central Government on the recommendation of the Select Committee defined by the Act.
  • Functions of NMA
    • To make recommendations to the Central Government for grading and classifying protected monuments and protected areas declared as of national importance under the Act.
    • To oversee the working of the competent authorities;
    • To suggest measures for implementation of the provisions of this Act;
    • To make recommendations to the competent authority for grant of permission.
    • To consider the impact of large-scale developmental projects including public projects and projects which are essential to the public and are proposed in the regulated areas and make recommendations in respect thereof to the competent authority;

IRAN TESTS MEDIUM RANGE MISSILE

Iran fired a medium-ranged Shahab-3 from the southern coast of Iran and landed east of Tehran.


SHAHAB-3 MISSILE
Missile Specifications :


  • It is a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) developed by Iran and based on the North Korean Nodong-1.
  • It has a range of 1,000 kilometres (620 mi); a MRBM variant can now reach 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) (can hit targets as far as Israel, Egypt, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece).
  • With an accuracy of 2,500 m CEP, the Shahab-3 missile is primarily effective against large, soft targets (like cities). Given the Shahab-3’s payload capacity, it would likely be capable of delivering nuclear warheads.


GRID CONNECTED ROOFTOP SOLAR PROGRAMME

The Government has set up a target of Rooftop Solar Projects (RSP) having a capacity of 40,000 MW by the end of year 2022.



Unlike the large-scale solar power generation plants, Rooftop solar installations can be installed on the roofs of buildings. They fall under two categories :


  • Commercial;
  • Residential
What is its potential in India?

The market potential for rooftop solar is marked at 124 GW by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy. But, presently only 1,247 MW of capacity had been installed as of December 31, 2016 which is a little more than 3% of the target for 2022, and 1% of the potential.


The main benefit of this is to the environment, since it reduces the dependence on electricity generated from the non-renewable sources of energy i.e., fossil fuels.


COMPANIES (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2019 PASSED IN LOK SABHA

The Companies (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was introduced in Lok Sabha on July 25, 2019 by the Minister of Finance, Ms. Nirmala Sitharaman. It seeks to amend the Companies Act, 2013. 




Key Highlights of the Bill:


  • Provision of dematerialised sharesUnder the Act, certain classes of public companies are required to issue shares in dematerialised form only. 
    •  The Bill states this may be prescribed for other classes of unlisted companies as well.
  • Re-categorisation of the OffencesThe Bill re-categorizes 16 of the 81 offences punishable with fine or imprisonment or both as civil defaults, where adjudicating officers (appointed by the central government) may now levy penalties instead. These offences include: 
    • Issuance of shares at a discount, 
    • Failure to file annual return. 
  • Provision of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) :  Under the Act, if companies which have to provide for CSR, do not fully spent the funds, they must disclose the reasons for non-spending in their annual report.
    • Under the Bill, any unspent annual CSR funds must be transferred to one of the funds under Schedule 7 of the Act (e.g., PM Relief Fund) within six months of the financial year.
  • Check on the Auditors : Under the Act, the National Financial Reporting Authority debar a member or firm from practicing as a Chartered Accountant for a period between six months to 10 years, for proven misconduct.  
    • The Bill amends the punishment to provide for debarment from appointment as an auditor or internal auditor of a company, or performing a company’s valuation, for a period between six months to 10 years.
  • Provisions for the Commencement of BusinessThe Bill states that a company may not commence business, unless it 
    • Files a declaration within 180 days of incorporation, confirming that every subscriber to the Memorandum of the company has paid for the shares agreed to be taken by him;\
    • Files a verification of its registered address with the RoC within 30 days of incorporation. 
  • Registration of chargesThe Act requires companies to register charges (e.g., mortgages) on their property within 30 days of creation of charge, extendable upto 300 days with the permission of the RoC.  
    • The Bill changes the deadline to 60 days (extendable by 60 days). 
  • Amendment in the approving authorityUnder the Act, change in period of financial year for a company associated with a foreign company, has to be approved by the National Company Law Tribunal.  
    • Under the Bill, these powers have been transferred to central government. 
  • Settlement of Disputes : Under the Act, a regional director can settle offences with a penalty of up to five lakh rupees.  
    • The Bill increases this ceiling to Rs 25 lakh. 
  • Debarring Holding of the Office : Under the Act, the central government or certain shareholders can apply to the NCLT for relief against mismanagement of the affairs of the company.  
    • The Bill states that in such a complaint, the government may also make a case against an officer of the company on the ground that he is not fit to hold office in the company, for reasons such as fraud or negligence.  
    • Also, If the NCLT passes an order against the officer, he will not be eligible to hold office in any company for five years.
  • Provision of the Beneficial ownership : If a person holds beneficial interest of at least 25% shares in a company or exercises significant influence or control over the company, he is required to make a declaration of his interest.  
    • The Bill requires every company to take steps to identify an individual who is a significant beneficial owner and require their compliance under the Act.


QUICK FEEDS



  • China, Russia and France shared data on Assam Flood.
  • B.S. Yediyurappa took oath as the 31st Chief Minister of Karnataka.
  • CARE4U app developed by IIT Kharagpur for the elderly people.
    • The app contains a record of medical histories, allergies’ account, an SOS button, real time location tracking and various other features.
  • Proahaetulla antiqua is a new species of vine snake discovered recently from the Western Ghats that dates back 26 million years.
    • The species is endemic to southern Western Ghats, the period of its evolution is estimated to be of the mid-Oligocene.

  • UKIERI (U.K. India Education & Research Initiative) Mobility Programme will allow U.K. students to visit India for higher studies.
  • Ream Naval Base : Located in the Gulf of Thailand, China and Cambodia have signed a secret agreement that allows China exclusive use of this naval base.

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