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Daily Current Affairs : 26th July, 2019 : The Hindu News Analysis

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Chandrayaan 2 : GSLV Mk-III helps reduce orbit-raising manoeuvres

Chandrayaan-2 successfully placed the moon-bound spacecraft in a temporary orbit called the Earth Parking Orbit(EPO) with perigee (closest distance from the earth) of 170 km and an apogee (farthest distance from the earth) of 45,475 km.

Chandrayaan 2

The apogee of the EPO this time was 6,000 km more than the originally envisaged due to which the number of earth-bound phase steps needed to take the satellite to the highest orbit of almost 1,44,000 km apogee has been reduced to 5 from 6. The sixth would be a trans-lunar injection.

The main advantage of this reduction in the manoeuvres would ultimately lead to fuel-saving.

How it works?

After the Satellite is placed in the EPO, the apogee is increased in steps to take it to the final earth-bound phase orbit of about 1,44,000 km. The satellite then goes around the Earth in elliptical orbits and to increase the apogee, the satellite fires thrusters when it comes closest to the earth (Perigee).


What is Surrogacy?

The Bill defines surrogacy as a practice where a "woman gives birth to a child for an intending couple with the intention to hand over the child after the birth to the intending couple."

What does it says about the Regulation of Surrogacy?

The Bill puts a ban on commercial surrogacy, but gives a green signal to  altruistic surrogacy in which there is "no monetary compensation to the surrogate mother other than the medical expenses and insurance coverage during the pregnancy."

Commercial surrogacy is basically carried out for a monetary benefit or reward (in cash or kind) apart from the basic medical expenses and the insurance coverage.

What are the grounds on which Surrogacy is permitted?

It is permitted in the following cases : 

  • For the intending couples who suffer from proven infertility; 
  • Altruistic Surrogacy involving no monetary compensation; 
  • Should not be done for commercial purposes; 
  • Should not be done for producing children for sale, prostitution or other forms of exploitation; and
  • Also for any condition or disease specified through regulations.


Eligibility Criteria?
  • In case of the intending couple, they should possess  a ‘certificate of essentiality’ and a ‘certificate of eligibility’  which should be issued by an appropriate authority.
  • In case of a surrogate mother she should be : 
    • A close relative of the intending couple; 
    • A married woman having a child of her own; 
    • 25 to 35 years old;
    • A surrogate only once in her lifetime; and 
    • Should possess a "certificate of medical and psychological fitness for surrogacy."  
    • Further, the surrogate mother cannot provide her own gametes for surrogacy.

Who could be an Appropriate Authority?

The central and state governments shall appoint one or more appropriate authorities within 90 days of the Bill becoming an Act
The appropriate authority shall perform the following functions :
  • Granting, suspending or cancelling registration of surrogacy clinics;
  • Enforcing standards for surrogacy clinics; 
  • Investigating and taking action against breach of the provisions of the Bill; 
  • Recommending modifications to the rules and regulations.

What are the provisions for the Parenting and the Abortion of the Surrogate Child?

The Surrogate Child will deemed to be the biological child of the intending couple.  In case the couple is intending for the abortion of the surrogate child , they will require the written consent of the surrogate mother and the authorization of the appropriate authority.  

This authorization must be in accordance  with the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. Also, the surrogate mother shall have an option to withdraw from surrogacy before the embryo is implanted in her womb.

What about the Offences and penalties? 

The offences under the Bill include: 

  • Undertaking or advertising commercial surrogacy; 
  • Exploitation of the surrogate mother; 
  • Abandoning, exploiting or disowning a surrogate child; and 
  • Selling or importing human embryo or gametes for surrogacy.  
The penalty for such offences is "imprisonment up to 10 years" and a "fine up to 10 lakh rupees." 

The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019 passed in Lok Sabha

The Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha by Union Minister of Law and Justice on 21st June, 2019. The Bill seeks to replace an Ordinance which was promulgated on February 21, 2019. It is recently passed by the Lok Sabha.

What is Talaq-e-biddat?

The Bill defines talaq as Talaq-e-biddat or any other similar form of talaq which a Muslim man pronounce and which results in an instant and irrevocable divorce. 

Talaq-e-biddat refers to the practice under the Muslim personal laws where just pronunciation of the word ‘talaq’ thrice in a single go by a Muslim man to his wife results in an instant and irrevocable divorce. 

What are Offences and penalties therein?

According to the Bill, the declaration of talaq becomes a cognizable offence (one for which a police officer may arrest an accused person without warrant.), which attracts up to 3 years’ imprisonment along with a fine.    

The offence will be considered as cognizable only if information relating to the offence is provided by: 

  • the married woman (against whom talaq has been declared), or 
  • any person related to her by blood or marriage.
The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019

Who can grant the bail?

According to the Bill, a Magistrate may grant bail to the accused which may be granted only after hearing the woman (against whom talaq has been pronounced), and if the Magistrate is convinced that there are reasonable grounds for granting bail.

Settlement of dispute outside the legal procedure?

The offence may be compounded by the Magistrate after the request of the woman (against whom talaq has been declared).  

Compounding basically is a procedure where the two sides agree to stop legal proceedings, and settle the dispute.  

The Magistrate will determine the terms and conditions of the compounding of the offence.

What are the allowances given to the Muslim woman?

A Muslim woman against whom talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek subsistence allowance from her husband for herself and for her dependent children.  The Magistrate will determine the amount of the allowance.

Who is entitled for the custody of the Minor Children?

Custody of the minor children is being handed over to the Muslim woman against whom the talaq has been pronounced. The Magistrate will determine the manner of custody.


According to the study, Climate variability - the fluctuation of surface temperatures over the time - has long been the subject of discussion and as the time passed the world temperatures rose faster in late 20th century than at any other time in the last 2,000 years.

The study has been carried out by the researchers by using the data compiled from almost 700 temperature indicators - tree rings, coral reefs, sediment cores and  modern thermometer readings - to provide a comprehensive timeline of the planet's most recent climate history.


A paper, which was published in the journal Nature, examined regional temperature trends over the time.

Another paper in Nature Geoscience, examined the surface warming rates, averaged over sub-periods each a few decades long. The study also found that pre-industrial temperatures fluctuations were largely driven by the volcanic activities.


  • Junichi Kawanishi, a Graphic Designer from Osaka, Japan won a nationwide competition to design medals for the Olympics and Paralympics next year. The medals designed by him would be awarded at the Tokyo 2020 next year.
Junichi Kawanishi

  • U.S. Federal Government reinstated death penalty for drug traffickers and mass shooters.
  • Rajasthan stood second in employment generation in MGNREGA.
  • M.S. Dhoni to train with Army Unit in the Kashmir Valley as part of Victor Force.
  • Ukraine seizes Russian ship in the Black Sea.
  • Paris records its hottest day as heatwave sears Europe. It hits the 42.4 degree Celsius mark, beating the previous record of 40.4 degree Celsius set in 1947.
  • WhatsApp planned to roll out its payment service in India in late 2019.
  • Robert Ballard, is an underwater explorer who found the Titanic, now has a new quest - searching for the plane of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart, who disappeared over the Pacific in 1937.
Robert Ballard

  • China launches its first private rocket to carry satellites.
    • Beijing-based Interstellar Glory Space Technology - also known as iSpace - has launched two satellite into orbit from Jiuquan, a state launch facility in the Gobi Desert.
China launches its first private rocket to carry satellites

  • Pakistan sets to send astronauts into space by 2022.
  • Elon Musk changes twitter name to '-1'. (could be asked as a direct MCQ)
  • Islatravir, is a new antiretroviral drug, an arm implant which seeks to fight the HIV infection and with a proven technology long used for the birth control: a matchstick-sized plastic rod inserted just under the skin of the upper arm and releases tiny doses of the medication.
    • The new implant has been released by the drug company MERCK, and was tested in just a dozen subjects for 12 weeks may protect against the infection for a year.
Structural Formula for Islatravir

  • Mange - a disease which causes wombats to lose some or all of their fur and starve to death within months- has wiped out more than 90% of the bare-nosed wombats in a single national park on the island of Tasmania.
    • Squat and furry, wombats are small burrow-dwelling marsupials that are largely nocturnal and walk on all fours. They are not a threatened species.
A Wombat

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